Saturday, July 30, 2011

Get rid body odor with essential oils

Body odor is not pleasant. This could undermine the comfort and confidence, if you do not get rid it. Many ways can be done to disguise it and repel it. However, many people do not know that natural deodorants available in the kitchen. Their natural ability to help us remove body odor comes from their essential oil content. What are they?
Marsh fleabane leaves (Pluchea indica)
This plant has an unpleasant smell and taste bitter. To eliminate body odor, eat raw Marsh fleabane leaves or steamit first. Boiled Marsh fleabane leaves are also delicious eaten as an ointment (vegetables with spiced grated coconut). If you eat it regularly, surely this stinky problem will disappear. In addition, the lack of bad or stinky breath odor will disappear. For people who do not like it, you can drink boiled water of Marsh fleabane leaves every morning and evening. It has also benefit to lower body temperature to trigger sweating.
Basil (Ocimun bassilicum)
Basil leaves contain essential oils that are believed to eliminate our stinky aroma. In addition, its essential oils also serves as an antiseptic. You can use it as a salad of raw vegetables or an ointment. Alternatively, crush or grind the leaves, seeds, and roots of basil, then pour it with boiling hot water, filter it, and add the sugar. Drink it two times a day, morning and night.
For women who are menstruating, eating approximately a handful of basil leaves in the morning and afternoon during menstruation, to avoid the odor that often befall to menstruating women.
Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza)
Saponin, flavoinoid, and essential oils, are the substances in Javanese turmeric which can eliminate this problem. The tips is drinking decoction of the finely chopped Javanese turmeric. Its juice with the little addition of honey can also be taken to overcome body odor. In addition, grated Javanese turmeric can also be massaged into the entire body, and then allowed to stand until dry before cleaning to get maximum results.
Torch ginger flowers (Nicolaia speciosa)
Active substance of this plant that can get rid body odor is saponin, flavoinoid, and polyphenols. Besides saponin and flavoinoid, it also contains polyphenols. It can be used by cooking its young leaves and flowers as vegetables to be eaten with rice. Its flowers can be cooked as a vegetable mixture of lodeh (one of Indonesian traditional cuisine) or goulash.
Kaffir lime (Citrus bystrix)
Kaffir lime peel contains essential oils that smell nice so it can be used to get rid body odor. The tips is drinking its juice mixed with mashed kencur together with enough boiled water.
Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)
Lime juice also contains essential oils. You can take one lime, squeeze it, take its juice and mix with 1/2 teaspoon of limestone, then stir it well. Rub into specific sections such as the armpits after a shower. Let stand for a moment to dry, then you can change with new clothes.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Many Indians believe that taking ginger can make them smell "sweet". According to Pen Chao Ching, the Shen Nong Emperor in China mainland (3000 BC), fresh ginger can get rid body odor and brought it to the spiritual aura. Ginger beverage consumed regularly may help to overcome this problem.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
Cucumber is rich in water and contains calcium, iron, magnesium. Eating cucumber is very refreshing. In addition to reduce fever, cucumber is also beneficial for skin health. The tips is wash one young cucumber, slice it thinly, then apply or rub on the body that smells. Or, grate cucumber, then compress your armpits with the grater. Let it stand for 10-15 minutes, then remove it. Do this after a shower.
Cloves (Eugenia aromatica)
Soak some cloves flowers in hot water so fluffy, then cool it, and drink the water. Perform it regularly in the morning and evening, surely your body odor will soon disappear. In addition, the decoction of a few cloves florets with palm sugar, can also be a refreshments and warming in times of rain or cold weather.

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Friday, July 29, 2011

Choose the best essential oils brand

Here are tips that can help you, how to choose the best brand of essential oils with high quality and pure. Because when you walk in the aromatherapy store to buy it, then you will be greeted by variety of pleasant scents. However, not all of it and scented candles has a healing power. Consider the following tips of choosing the best essential oils brand
1. Check the bottle.
Avoid buying the essential oils sold in clear glass bottles because of clear glass allows the light causing the damage to its content. Instead, choose the products stored in amber-colored bottles (brown) or dark. Most of the best essential oils brand is packed in the dark or amber bottles. Some vendors sell it in aluminum bottles. Aluminum is acceptable if the inside of the bottle is coated.
You should also avoid buying it in plastic bottles because the oil may dissolve plastic. Furthermore, the dissolved plastic will contaminate it.
Also avoid buying the products that have a rubber pipette bulb on it because the rubber pipette bulb can be dissolved in the essential oils and then it is contaminated.
2. Observe the properties of each
Each type of aromatherapy oil has different therapeutic qualities, i.e. pine is good for treating coughs and asthma. Currently, the scent of patchouli is used to relieve anxiety, depression, and skin problems. Before you buy aromatherapy products, make sure you know the benefits of each kind.
3. Check the label.
Be careful with words like "perfume," "natural," or "perfume oil" These words indicate that you saw was not a single pure essential oil. Many labeled brand perfume (which can be a combination of essential oils and chemicals, or chemicals only) and perfume as "aromatherapy". It is important to buy pure aromatherapy oil to obtain optimal health benefits.
4. Check the presence of dust.
If you see an aromatherapy product has a dusty, then avoid buying it. The existence of dust indicates its long life even aromatherapy products expired. Products that have expired are no longer giving healing properties as the product is still new.
5. Check the prices.
Different types of aromatherapy products have different prices. Some rare and exotic oil have higher prices than other types. If every bottle of aromatherapy product has the same price, you have to think twice before you buy it.
Finally, you should remember that only the best essential oils provides the best benefit and healing properties for you. So, choose the best essential oils for you wisely!

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Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Essential Oils Recipe for Massage Oil

Essential oils recipe can be used as an ingredient for making massage oil, as well as for flavor enhancer or being used in the perfume industry. It is required for that activity because it can produce a relaxing effect (reduce tension), increase the sense of peace and tranquility, and promote healing.
Some of those can be used for this purpose include patchouli, cajuput, clove, tea tree, black pepper, orange, citronella, ylang-ylang (cananga), and nutmeg oil. Each of them has the different benefit.
The benefits of these essential oils when used for massage oil recipe are:
Patchouli: gives strength or power on the entire body (or on just one system in particular, for example, the respiratory system), and has ability to kill/reduce microbe.
Cinnamon: reduces pain.
Cajuput, clove oil, tea tree: is a powerful antiseptic (especially for the respiratory system), serves as an antiviral, astringent, stimulant and tonic.
Black pepper: are analgesic, antikataral, expectorant, stimulant and tonic.
Lemongrass fragrance oil: is anti-inflammatory and tonic as well as efficacious as a stimulant of the immune system.
Orange: is refreshing, reducing/ killing certain microbe, stimulant, tonic, prevent the acne.
Cananga: is antiinflmation and tonic
Nutmeg: nature as an analgesic, reducing/ killing certain microbe, and stimulant.
However, you should be careful in combining them as one recipe because certain types are irritating to the skin, such as clove oil. Skin irritation is a reaction to the material that causes inflammation and itching. Usually (but not always), skin irritation is found in substances containing aldehyde or phenol with a high level. From one person to another found a wide tolerance, which the oils that does not cause a reaction in the majority of consumers can be irritating on one or two people who are more sensitive. However, the dermal irritation is usually local and brief. Therefore, for a massage, it is important to use essential oils with the less irritating to the skin and is not toxic.
Carrier oil
Some of them has been studied for use as a carrier in recipe for massage by Mira Rivai et.al. (Presented in the Indonesia National Conference of EO, in 2006), namely the VCO (virgin coconut oil), palm, castor, and coconut oil. From the results of these studies found that the most preferred one is the product that uses VCO and coconut oil. But in terms of aroma, the product that use palm oil is the most preferred by panelists.
Essential oils recipe for massage oil
Here is some formula of massage oil according to Rivai et.al. (2006):
Formula 1: VCO 97%, 1% patchouli oil, ylang-ylang (cananga) oil 1%, and nutmeg oil 1%.
Formula 2: coconut oil 97%, patchouli oil 1%, ylang oil 1%, and nutmeg oil 1%.
Formula 3: palm oil 97%, patchouli oil 1%, ylang oil 1%, nutmeg and oil 1%.
However, essential oils recipe for massage oil should be used wisely, for example: do not use it on wounded or irritated skin, and not use it in dense concentrations.

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Solvent extraction for essential oils from flowers

What is extraction?
Solvent extraction in principle is the separation (separation) that exploit the differences in solubility properties of the individual components of a mixtures in certain types of solvents.
Examples are: a mixture of A and B would be separated using the X solvent. From the data of solubility properties, component of A is very soluble in X, while component of B is slightly soluble or even insoluble. If the X is added to the mixture of A and B which are different in nature of polarity, then the component of A will dissolve in the X, while B does not. So it will get a new mixture of A and X. The next stage is how to separate the A and X? One method is evaporation.
Extraction techniques are typically used to produce essential oils that are easily damaged by heat, in this case is the volatile oil of flowers such as jasmine, or rose. To dissolve the essential oils, then a chemical compound is required which is typically and non-polar. Why do non-polar? Fresh flowers naturally contain water. In the concept of chemical bonding, the water is polar. Well, if you use a polar compound such as alcohol, of course, water also contained in the raw materials will dissolve into the alcohol and thus require a more complex separation process. But if used non-polar compound so water will not dissolve into it.
There are many types of non-polar organic compounds, but the most commonly used is hexane (C6H14) although you can also use benzene (C6H6) or also petrol / gasoline. There are several criteria in choosing a solvent for extraction of flowers in addition to its non-polar. Among them are its ability to dissolve fragrant substances in the raw material perfectly, has a low boiling point and uniform, are "inert" or do not react with aromatic substances that will be extracted, the lowest price possible and easy to obtain.
The final product using the this type of extraction are of two kinds, namely concrete and absolute. Concrete is an essential oil which is mixed with a wax / resin and the residual solvent. When the extraction process takes place, not only essential oils are dissolved, but also wax / resin come into it. Concrete shaped like a semi-solid fat or butter. While the absolute is a pure essential oil without impurities such as wax / resin and the residual. Absolute is the most expensive price.
There are also other concepts that are not less important, ie vacuum evaporation. Vacuum conditions are defined as conditions under atmospheric pressure (below 1 atm / normal pressure). So the combined meaning is the process of solvent evaporation on the conditions under normal pressure.
Why should a vacuum?
The ultimate goal is to reduce the boiling point of the solvent so that the overall process temperature become low. The lower pressure, so the temperature of process is also lower. For example; hexane at normal pressure (1 atm) has boiling point at 68 Celcius degree, at a pressure of 0.7 atm, its boiling point is 58 Celcius degree, and at a pressure of 0.2 atm, its boiling point 25 Celcius degree. These conditions are expected in the extraction of essential oils from flowers in order to obtain good quality oil. It means the damage caused by essential oils of high temperatures can be avoided. While other purpose vacuum conditions is to assure that the solvent can be separated as much as possible. To maintain the vacuum needed a tool to support the vacuum pump.

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Friday, July 22, 2011

Essential oils as fleas repellent on pets

The uses of essential oil as fleas repellent on pets is possible, because if it can be a healing agent to humans, it can also be a healing agent to the pet. They are good for health and psychology (mood). But you must be very careful if you want to give it for your animals. This is because it should be used based on a strict recipe and we all know that they can not tell what they feel during the treatment. Even when a pet give a particular expression of abnormal behavior to indicate that it was interrupted by a particular infection or disagree with certain treatments, it is still difficult for us to understand the true meaning of such behavior. This is why you should first and foremost seek the advice of your veterinarian before administering essential oil as the fleas repellent for your pet. Your veterinarian, off course, has more experience with their necessities and behavior.
Ticks are very common for animals, for example in cats. They must be treated humanely as humans take care of itself. It has been urged by animal rights advocates in several regions of the world and these regions even through the long journey to make regulations which provide protection to them. Cats are one of a close friend of humans. Therefore, people should take to maintain their health, and particularly a common infection that is often endemic in pets i.e. fleas. As in humans, infection in animals can be lowered their mood, appearance, and also agility. Essential oils has often been considered to be used for the treatment for the infection.
They can be given to our pets without worrying about side effects if they are used properly. They can be used for treating head lice because of lice attack in the area around the neck and legs. Therefore, applying essential oils as fleas repellent around the region will not cause significant problems for the health of pets. Lavender, and peppermint are good for curing head lice are. Another form like eucalyptus, cedar lemongrass (citronella cedar) and lemon can also be considered.
Another possibility is to try a mixture of rosemary, white cedar, eucalyptus, lemongrass, and peppermint oil as fleas repellent on pets. However, you must give it to the its neck and let it dry for some time before lacing on the its neck. You should also understand that every case has its own treatment. Therefore, you should get advice from a veterinarian because of what you copied from friends may not apply to your case. And especially, the treatment itself must be understood risks to the health of your animals. It means you must pay more attention on the dosage and how to use it properly. The last thing, it does not restrict the uses of essential oil as fleas repellent, but also are mentally refreshing and relaxing pets just like on a normal human feeling.

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Monday, July 18, 2011

How to make essential oils

This post describes how to make essential oils from certain part of aromatic plants. Extraction of essential oils can be done in three ways: (a) distillation, (b) pressing (expression), (c) by using the solvent extraction (solvent extraction), and (d) adsorption by the solid fat (enfleurage). Among the four modes which are widely used by the essential oil industries are the the first and third way.
Distillation is the oldest method of the essential oils production. This method is suitable to produce volatile compounds that are not easily damaged by heat, such as clove oil, patchouli, citronella scented, nutmeg, vetiver and ginger.
Pressing is done by putting pressure on the material using a device called a hydraulic or expeller pressing. Several types that can be separated by pressing are the oil of almond, lemon, orange peel, and other types.
Using solvent extraction is suitable to produce flower oils which is less stable and can be damaged by heat. Solvents which can be used for this purposes, among others, chloroform, alcohol, acetone, ether, and fats. While enfleurage used specifically to separate the oil of flowers, to make essential oils with high quality and oil yield.
Distillation is a process of physical separation of a mixture of two or more products that have different boiling points by first boiling component having a low boiling point separated from the mixture. To simplify that process, the raw materials can be treated firstly (materials handling) by some means such as drying, washing and sliced.
Drying can accelerate the extraction process and improve the quality of the essential oils, but during the drying some of the oil might be lost due to evaporation and oxidation by air. Several types of raw materials do not need to be dried, such as ginger, and other materials that are refined in a fresh condition to prevent loss of aroma which is desired.
Washing is usually done to materials derived from the soil such as fragrant roots, and rhizomes. The goal is to clean the material from dirt, preventing the oil so as not to dirty, and the efficiency of loading of materials in the kettle flute.
Slicing will facilitate the evaporation of essential oils from the material, expand the flute surface properties of materials and reducing the Kamba. In general, slicing performed on the size of 20-30 cm.
In the essential oil industry, it is known about three kinds of distillation methods to make essential oils : (1)distillation with water (water distillation), (2)with water-vapor (water and steam distillation), (3) direct steam distillation.
In the distillation, pressure, temperature, and flow rate depend on how old is the distillery and type of commodity. Old distillery varies from 3-5 hours to citronella scented, 5-8 hours for patchouli and clove oil, 10 - 14 hours to nutmeg oil, and 10-16 hours for vetiver oil depends on the type of raw material (wet / dry ), the use of pressure and temperature. High vapor pressures can cause decomposition of the oil, therefore it is better refining begins with low pressure, then increased gradually until the end of the process.
During the distillation process, vapor condensed and fell to the bottom of the boiler must be removed periodically through the disposal to prevent the porous submerged steam pipes, as this can impede the flow of steam from the boiler to the boiler flute.
In the cooling process, the temperature of cooling water into the tube or the ideal cooling pond about 25-30 degrees C, and the maximum temperature of the water out 40-50 degrees C. Outgoing water temperature can be regulated with the zoom in / out discharge cooling water into the tube / cooling pond.
Separation of oil from the separator tube should "not arrested" (taken with a scoop), because it will cause the oil separated from the water will re-dispersed in water and difficult to separate again, thus resulting in loss (loses).
The result still looks cloudy because small amount of water and dirt are dispersed in oil. They can be separated by filtering the oil using Teflon fabric / silk screening. That separation can also be done by adding a water-binding substances in the form of Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous (Na2SO4) by 1% then stirred and filtered. This is also the important step of process to make essential oils.

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Organic pesticides from essential oils in Indonesia

The demand for organic pesticides or plant-based pesticides as a main component in the control of nuisance organism plant increased directly as the development of organic agriculture with the world market demand of U.S. $ 17.5 billion at the rate of increase in demand of 10-20% per year. In Indonesia, the government since 2002 has been put in motion Go Organic 2010, with the aspiration to make Indonesia as one of the major producers of natural food in the world. Indonesia National Standard which sets out the Organic Food Systems has banned the use of synthetic chemical compounds, but suggest the use of natural pesticides and control mechanically.
There are 2400 species of plants that have a property to be used as organic pesticides in the broad sense. A variety of volatile plant that grows in the land of Indonesia has been known to have the potential to be used for this purpose in the scope of agriculture to control plant bug, including insects, mammals, pathogens cause plant diseases (fungi, bacteria , viruses, nematodes) and weeds. Farming communities in various regions generally have local knowledge in the use of plants around them to be used to protect crops and livestock.
Chinese society has also utilize many kinds of of organic pesticides from essential oils that some of the same kind as the oils found in Indonesia, such as neem and melaleuca.
In addition to use on the farm, organic pesticides can also be used in the household environment. Essential oils of some plants such as lemongrass, neem, lavender and geranium are effective as a mosquito repellent. Citizens in Papua zodia leaf rubbed into their bodies as a mosquito repellent before entering the forest for hunting, collecting forest products or farming.
Besides as a pest repellent, essential oils can also be used as a decoy compound (attractant) for specific bugs in the field. Formula attractants for fruit flies (Bactocera hector) is made and basil oil and melaleuca has been widely used by horticultural farmers in the country as the organic pesticides to control fruit flies in the star fruit, guava, red peppers, apples, jackfruit, papaya, mango, melon, and tomatoes.
In the environment around the settlements, some volatile plant can be grown and placed in such a way in the yard or indoors. Some of the plants mentioned are: Meulaleuca, Basil, Mimba, Seraiwang, Nilam and Zodia. Future research is needed to study this potential so it can be utilized optimally with due respect to effectiveness, efficiency, security and aesthetics.
Essential oils of clove, neem, and citronella plant are the raw material of organic pesticides with the multipurpose broad use or because it can serve as an organic pesticides, insecticide, fungicide, bactericide and anti-virus. Extracts of clove, lemongrass, and turmeric reported to be effective to kill golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) with mortality reaching 100 percent. Extracts of the plant cloves, jeringau and piretrum also proved effective as an organic pesticides to pepper pests (Dasynus piperis, Diconocoris hewetti, Aphis craccivora, A. gossypii, Ferrisia virgata) and mosquitoes (Culex sp.) Researchers at IMACRI, Indonesia has also produced repellents "Mimba" and "Namus" made and neem oil and lemongrass. Has also produced anti-mosquito liquid fuels "Naumi" which comprises raw materials and kitchen lemon grass, patchouli, clove, cinnamon, lemongrass and nutmeg scent. This product is a fragrant scent, safe and suitable for use indoors. Formula attractants for fruit flies (Bractocera hector) is made from basil oil, neem and zodia (ATLABU) has been widely used by horticultural farmers in the country as an organic pesticides to control fruit flies in the star fruit, guava, red peppers, apples, jackfruit, papaya, mangoes, melons, and tomatoes.

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Essential oils aromatherapy tips

Essential oils aromatherapy can be used for therapeutic purposes. They are natural plant extracts obtained through steam distillation or chemical extraction. They are usually presented in the form of pure and natural so it is generally safe to use it for aromatherapy. However, there are some cases when the natural ingredients can cause adverse effects or allergic reactions. Always remember that you only need to use a small amount of them. You have to dilute it with carrier oil before use.
Here are some useful tips for essential oils aromatherapy:
First tips, before using them for therapeutic purposes, be sure to consult with an experienced experts. This is important especially for people with certain medical conditions experienced by either current or past. There are certain medical conditions which the use of essential oils aromatherapy can actually aggravate a particular disease or health condition.
Second tips, do some research before using it. Research can be done by reading books or searching for information on the internet.
Third tips, there are several of them that can enhance or counteract the effects of certain drugs. So, when using essential oils aromatherapy, be sure to choose the kind that can help medical treatment, rather than vice versa.
Fourth tips, volatile compounds are usually sold in high concentrations or concentrated, therefore they are very powerful. In most cases, you need to dilute it with carrier or vegetable oil before use. Some of the recommended carrier oil include almond, olive, apricot kernel, hazelnut, jojoba, coconut, palm, and avocado oil. Each kind of volatile compounds has different suitability with the certain carrier oil.
Fifth, avoid contact with eyes, because it can irritate the eyes. Avoid touching eyes with hands that may have used it. Most of the volatile compounds provide a sense of hot or warm to the skin even spicy in the mouth. You can imagine what will happen if the compounds are touching your eyes.
Sixth, keep it out of reach of children. Children have a great curiosity and therefore they do not know the dangers. They want to know the taste of the objects around them by touching it by hand, smell, even taste it.
Seventh, if you are pregnant or nursing, consult a physician before using essential oils aromatherapy. It can cause negative effects to the unborn fetus. However, midwives are known to give oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) to women during and after childbirth to reduce pain.
Some of them are not recommended during pregnancy is jasmine, myrrh, and ylang-ylang.
Eighth, many volatile compounds are not suitable for infants and children under the age of 12. Before use in infants and young children dilute it 2 to 4 times more dilute than those used for adults.
Ninth, it can cause dermatitis and sensitization, especially when used repeatedly. Use only a small amount of them at a time.
Tenth, when choosing it, always check the names of the Latin or botanical to make sure you use the proper one. They may have the same common name but can have different functions. Some of them that have more than one common name.
Knowing these precautions as essential oils aromatherapy tips can help you avoid a mistake.

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the Benefits of ginger

Research on benefits of ginger had been conducted by Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB) of Indonesia , through the institutions of "Pusat Studi Biofarmaka " (Center of Biopharmacy Study). It is found that there are many benefits of ginger for health. This spice even became one of the ingredients for traditional herbal beverage. According to Prof. Dr. Ir Latifah K Darusman, Head of Center of Biopharmacy Study, IPB , it is a medicinal plant which has been known for a long time and widely used.
Developments of ginger benefits research in Indonesia
Research related to the advantages of ginger indeed many are already doing it. However, through the Pusat Studi Biofarmaka IPB try to do those on a segment that has not been touched by the segment of aquaculture: the market potential and quality control of its simplicia. However several researches of the efficacy of its antioxidant properties and its product formulation also performed. Some of them are related to the health benefits of ginger has been done by the Pusat Studi Biofarmaka, making standard operating procedures for its cultivation, with a cultivation system based bioactive materials as excellence. Development of analytical techniques for quality control its simplicia also performed, namely the determination of quality test directly from the simplicia. Assessment strategies for supporting this rhizome as a commodity exports are also being conducted. The researches are carried out either independently or in collaboration with other agencies such as the Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration of Indonesia.
Is there any harmful substance in this herb?
No harmful effects that will be posed by its chemical components for use in accordance with the recommendation. But that must be considered is the presence of other chemicals (eg aflatoxin) contamination in its simplicia caused by Aspergillus sp.
Benefits of ginger for health?
It is one of the most common herbs used for medicinal components. Pusat Studi Biofarmaka IPB in collaboration with Oxford Natural Products has conducted an inventory of drugs study used medicinal plants for nine types of diseases. The study results showed that it was recorded as a component of herbal medicine for 7 types of disease and is the most common herbs used for herbal medicine is efficacious as a pain reliever and digestive tract disorders relievers.
In preclininic research, both in vitro and in vivo, it have wide potential as antimicrobe, antifungal, antihelmintic , anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immunomodulatory nature, antilipidemic, analgesics, and have a protective effect on the digestive tract. While in clinically, the most obvious benefits is to relieve symptoms of nausea in pregnant women. For the other benefits of ginger such as preventing nausea after surgery, preventing drunk because of travel, and pain due to osteoarthritis, in clinical studies to date are quite effective but still must be confirmed by further studies.
This rhizome is still save a lot of opportunities to be developed by the researchers. The availability of this rhizome, especially in tropical countries like Indonesia and Nigeria, strongly supports such efforts. Some researchers in Indonesia has even explored the use of the extract in the manufacture of packaging materials. The results showed that the addition of the extract to the packaging material could inhibit the degradation of fat in packaged food.

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Healthy beverage from garbage?

The history of Java healthy beverage in Indonesia records many types of traditional beverage recipes. "Wedang uwuh" that is now in vogue many people is just one of them. Although in Javanese language it means “garbage drink”, but it is capable for refreshing our body. Its taste is also so unique.
There are many kinds of healthy beverage in a tradition of Javanese society. There are wedang jahe (ginger drink), ronde, secang, and so on. In addition to warm the body, some of those are able to relieve cough and increase human endurance.
That is now in vogue many people, especially people living in the area of Imogiri, Bantul, Yogyakarta (one of famous province in Indonesia ) and surrounding areas is wedang uwuh. Popularity of this healthy beverage was also already penetrated the capital and several other big cities in Indonesia. Not a few people brought "wedang uwuh" as a gifts that is ready to brew, after a trip to Yogyakarta.
Wedang uwuh lower cholesterol?
“Uwuh” in Javanese language means trash or garbage. Nicknamed “uwuh” because when its raw material mixed, it looks like a garbage. Various types of herbs to be content of this healthy beverage include ginger, shavings of sappanwood, shavings of cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg leaf. Sometimes the stem of lemongrass or lime leaves are added as well. Finally, rock sugar or palm sugar is used as a sweetener.
Judging from basic ingredients, wedang uwuh has benefits for health. Ginger, through several research, proved beneficial for blood circulation. Ginger is an anticoagulant (blood anticoagulant) greater than garlic or onion. Ginger is also capable of lowering cholesterol levels because ginger contain essential oil that reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the blood and liver. Research conducted by experts in Japan shows, ginger can lower high blood pressure by reducing peripheral blood flow rate.
Cinnamon essential oil has antioxidant properties and make the traditional healthy beverage is much more enjoyable. Many herbalists believe that the mixture of ginger and cinnamon are believed to increase our body protection because of its high antioxidant content.
Briefly, a long time ago the Javanese have recognized this trash drink as a good drink for the human body through the experience that they pass on to their descendants, rather than through systematic research. But, ultimately, their knowledge is now slowly beginning to prove its truth.

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Saturday, July 16, 2011

Tips about ginger for health optimally

Among the many types of plants, nothing provides advantages more than benefits of ginger for health. There are many reports about its benefit. It is more than just herbs, because it proved efficacious repel a variety of diseases. Even NASA, had been interested in researching the efficacy of this spice to overcome the drunken crew.
In China, its dried form has been used as a raw material for medicine by a physician who lived during the time of Emperor Shen Nong, who lived 2000 years BC. In China also found two books on medicine who first discussed the properties of the fresh ginger for health in the year 500 AD. Discussion of its efficacy are also written in Anglo-Saxon medical books published in the 11th century. Two centuries later, this is the spice of the kitchen which is very popular in the UK, after the black pepper. Its price is very expensive, to gain 1 pound (about half of a kilogram) of this rhizome, people need to spend money equivalent for a sheep.
Here are several tips about ginger uses for health based on information from the Center of Biopharmacy Study IPB (Bogor Agricultural Institute), Indonesia.
Tips #1:What ingredients are allowed or prohibited mixed with ginger?
Several studies indicate that the use of appropriate clinical doses, they did not interact with other medications.
Tips #2: It should be taken after meals or before meals?
Associated with its content of bioactive compounds that have the ability to heal wounds in the stomach, so it should be taken before meals.
Tips #3: How to process/ cook it so well that the content of efficacious substances will not change?
Bioactive substances contained in this spice (eg zingiberene or its essential oil) is a thermolabile compound. For that processing that uses excess heat that ought to be avoided. However, in an aqueous solution, these substances can last up to a temperature of 100 degrees celcius.
Tips #4: How about ginger consumption frequency?Is it dangerous when it is consumed every day?
The use of its powder orally at levels of 2 grams per day (in one dose or divided into several times) allowed in the long period.
Tips #5: Is there any contradiction when it is consumed by people with ulcers, because there is substance in ginger as opposed to gastric acid?
There is no information related about its contradiction at the recommended dosage for this. Only one study conducted by researchers from India shows that the use of its powder at doses of 6 grams per day can cause stomach irritation.

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Tips for Bath Aromatherapy Using Essential Oils

Aromatherapy is the ideal way to relax, relieve stress, anxiety, and relieve muscle pain. While using a hot water is generally a favorite of women, now more and more women are enjoying this treatment. Here are tips for using essential oils for bath aromatherapy .
1. The key so you can reach the maximum benefit is to select the types and essential oils blend which is appropriate.
2. To start it, just add a few drops of them into the solvent (carrier oil), i.e. almond.
3. Add this solution into the water, mixed with a thoroughly before you use it for bathing.
4. There are many different recipes that you can use, depending on what kind of benefits you want to accomplish.
5. Good choice for this relaxing activity including rose, neroli, jasmine, ylang ylang, and sandalwood.
6. If you want to create a mood of calm and relax after a tired day of work, consider options such as chamomile or lavender.
7. This kind of therapy is also a great way to help children relax after a day of activities, because it will make them sleep more soundly at night.
8. Warm bath with chamomile and lavender would be a good choice for children.
9. To prevent unwanted problems, always make sure to use essential oils that do not make your allergies.
10. If you are not sure about allergic reactions that may arise, you can talk with an expert to be sure.
11. In addition, there are some types that should be avoided or should not be used for this activity. These essential oils include cinnamon, black pepper, clove, thyme, nutmeg, basil, and oregano.
12. This aromatherapy is ideal if it is done after your body clean.
If you want to soothe your tired body, pamper yourself, or share a romantic evening with your partner, aromatherapy bath can be an ideal choice.

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Monday, July 11, 2011

Export and Import Trend of Essential Oil Indonesia

The essential oil is the exports commodity of Indonesia and Indonesia is one of the major manufacturers, especially patchouli, nutmeg, vetiver, clove leaf and citronella oil. Export destinations include Europe, America, Australia, Africa, China, India, and ASEAN. However, their export to the international market is still largely in the form of semi-finished products. To meet the needs of the food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, Indonesia is still importing derived products or essential oils that have been "purified".
Indonesia trade statistics show volatile oil exports in 2007 reached U.S.$ 101.14 million, with 20 kinds. In the same year, Indonesia import of essential oils, its derivatives, and perfume products worth 381.9 million U.S.$.
What about essential oil prices?
Its price greatly influenced by the development of downstream industries are essential oils made from raw industrial perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industry. Therefore the need for importing countries is highly dependent on the magnitude of the needs of these industries, both industries in Indonesia and abroad. The dynamics of the downstream sector will give effect to the formation of volatile oil value.
The essential oils use in the downstream products require a high degree of purity, because the doses used in certain specific purpose with strict requirements. For example its use in aromatherapy products that can be encountered in salons and spas. In large industries, the use of products such as food, perfume, cosmetics, toiletries, raw materials used come from the its derivatives such as eugenol (from clove oil), methyl ketone cedryl (from cedarwood oil), vetiveryl acetate (from vetiver oil ), etc..
In some commodities, trade in essential oils are not only based on the workings of the fundamental aspects of global supply, but there are also non-fundamental aspects, such as market sentiment. Market sentiment and attitude is a product of all market participants ranging from farmers, middlemen, exporters, importers, speculators (fund managers) and the end users (end users) themselves. Therefore, the risk factors remain to be faced by exporters in deciding on policy sales.
Behavior of essential oil prices on world markets each year shows the pattern of change is divided into three categories, that is likely to decrease, relatively stable, tend to rise or fluctuate. It tend to rise developments indicate there is still a bright market prospect. At the level of refiners in the domestic market, from early 2009 until May 2009, Indonesia volatile oil value trend is still fairly stable.
Some of the Indonesia essential commodities prices tend to be stable each year, meaning not too sharp fluctuations in commodities such as oil of clove leaf and vetiver oil. Clove leaf oil has experienced the lowest, which is about 3.2 U.S. $ in 1998, slowly began to rise until in 2001 the level of U.S. $ 6. The next year has decreased to the level of U.S. $ 3.5 and started to climb back up in 2007 again reached 6 - 6.5 U.S. $.
Commodities essential oils that have a very great fluctuations are patchouli oil. In 1997, patchouli oil was valued settled down to reach 150 U.S. $, but the following year (1998) declined rapidly to the level below 20 U.S. $. Economic crisis in Indonesia at that time was one reason. In the year 1998 - 2006, patchouli oil prices can be said to be stable in range of 20-60 U.S. $.
In 2007, a combination of unfavorable weather & patchouli oil prices are not attractive in 2006 than any other agricultural commodities as well as the emergence of various plant diseases caused a sharp decline in production is estimated that nearly half of the normal situation. This situation causes the value shot up to reach 150 USD $. In the year 1997 - 2002, vetiver oil prices fairly stable price level 25 0-55 U.S. $, subsequently increased to reach 85 U.S. $ in 2007.

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Domestic trade of Essential Oil in Indonesia

Essential oil trade in Indonesia is mostly in the form of crude oils which is almost entirely produced by farmers or industry of small scattered areas of production centers. Its market is relatively long, originated from peasant producers and end on exporters, with variations.
Exporter / manufacturing industry as an actor in the chain end of the essential oil trade in Indonesia obtained through a broker. Among the brokers are also "agents" or representatives of exporters and others are free. Middlemen buy the oils stemming from traders in the producing regions. Traders generally provide capital or advances to farmers / distillers so that the oil produced by the farmer / distiller must be sold to collectors at a price specified by the buyer / collector based on the quality of the assessed unilaterally by the buyer are subjective (organoleptic), not based on levels or content of specific compounds in the products. That is, the good oil priced the same or less. This is what is causing refiners to mixing good oil with low-quality oil even oil refiners are reluctant to produce good oil.
Manufacture of essential oils consist of a series of productive activities that are connected between the activity values with each other to form the industry value chain. Value chain is also a link in a business activity from plant raw materials to industrial consumers, the perfume industry, cosmetics, toiletries, and food.
Food industry, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products market in Indonesia is an essential oil derivatives. Huge market potential is still untapped, because of the industry that processes crude oils into derivative products is still very limited. Needs derived products needed by the food industry, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics obtained through imports.
Essential oil trade in Indonesia was faced with two major problems: low quality and the prices fluctuate, especially in the major export commodities of patchouli and vetiver. The low grade is an accumulation of volatile plant quality raw materials which is low and not uniform, use of equipment and process technologies that refiners have not been standardized, and the lack of price incentives for good-quality oils. Plant raw material prices are determined by the movement of fuel prices at the refinery, not by production costs. All business actors (farmers, refiners and exporters) then receive the same risk of loss due to the problem.

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Sunday, July 10, 2011

Jasmine oil

Jasmine oil is produced mostly in France and it is mainly produced for perfumes. There are two kinds of cultivated varieties: J. officinale L; and J. L. officinale grandiflorum var.
The flowers after they are picked to live in physiological and producing essential oils. Production of essential oils is discontinued when they have died and rotted. So, in order to get the essential oil, it is carried out by extraction using enfleurage system (cold fat). In this way, the yield is quite high and a high level of fragrance, but its production cost is quite expensive, so it is rarely used. Another way of jasmine oil production is using the extraction solvent evaporated (solvent extraction) to make it.
The fresh oil is reddish brown, and has a distinctive smell. The absolute is sticky, clear, yellow brown and has a fragrant odor. If this absolute adsorbs the air, it will change oil smells, more viscous, and eventually form a resin.
It is generally used as fragrance substances of high class perfume. This oil is usually exported to Singapore, Australia, Europe, Middle East, India, China, and Thailand. Jasmine oil export volume has decreased drastically in 2005 compared to the previous year.
On the other hand, when it needs the natural oils including its flowers for the purposes of the cosmetics industry, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, soaps, herbal industry, and aroma therapy are still very high. Especially for the purposes of aromatherapy as part of fitness care, it has a very important role. According to the Herbal Encyclopedia, its scent is capable of causing a relaxing effect, eliminates the tension of mind / depression, and gives the impression of calm (calm). Because the efficacy of this, perhaps Indonesian ancestors used it as a bride flower .
Several types of the this oil products are:
a) special jasmine oil>, the oil extracted from its flowers with petroleum ether solvent, as raw materials of high quality fragrance oils.
b) jasmine oil, ie oil extracted from its flowers with a benzole solvent, as raw material for perfume medium quality.
c) special pomade Oil, which is the oil obtained by techniques enfleurage,
d) pomade Oil, the oil extracted from its flowers using enfleurage, as technical deodorizer.

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Cinnamon oil

Cinnamon oil obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness called Cinnamon oils, while derived from Cinnamomum cassia called Cassia oil. Cinnamon oil is used as a flavouring agent in the manufacture of perfumes, cosmetics, and soaps.
Its export volumes are relatively small. BPS (Central Bureau of Statistics of Indonesia) mentioned that at period of 2000 - 2003, its export volume is quite large in 2000 which amounted to 14,400 tons, but declined rapidly in subsequent years, only up to 100 tons / year.
Addition of 1 teaspoon of cinnamon into the dish, can inhibit the rise in blood sugar levels than people who do not consume it. Thus the findings of experts in this oil which is published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. "It improve insulin sensitivity, thereby allowing a person to use more glucose in the blood and keep blood sugar levels remain stable," said research team leader, Joanna Hlebowicz PhD. Addition of this spice into a dish that contains carbohydrates or starch may also stabilize blood sugar after meals. Stable blood sugar levels will minimize fluctuations in blood sugar levels, and for people with diabetes it means reducing their insulin requirements.
Its trees is one of the typical crops grown in Indonesia and many mountainous areas, such as Kerinci in Jambi Province. From this plant which can be commercialized especially is its bark (cassiavera) as the main source of cinnamon oil. This product has a distinctive aroma and flavor that is classified into exotic spices from the east (oriental flavor). It can be further processed into dried product in the form of sheets or bars (sticks), powders, or extracts (cinnamon oil or oleoresin). These products are usually exported in the form of dry sheets or bars to multiple destinations including the European Union and the United States.
From the research in ITS, Indonesia by Indah Ratri Puspaningsih about distillation of this essential oil, obtained conclusions: The longer the time of distillation of cinnamon oil obtained yield more and more. The smaller the size of the material to be distilled, then the yield produced is more and more. The oil from the bark obtained at most eight hours, with material size> 50 mesh and material capacity of 800 grams. Volume of the essential oil produced from the bark during the 8-hour experiment with material size> 50 mesh and the material capacity of 800 grams is 8 ml. The oil produced has: density: 0.899 gr/cm3 acid value: 2.8, water content: 1.976%; oil content: 1%.

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Fennel Oil

Fennel oil, also called minyak adas in Indonesia, produced from the fennel plant. Varieties that produce this oil consists of two sub-species, namely Var. Vulgare (Miller) Thelling (wild and bitter) and Var. Dulce (Miller) Thelling (intensive cultivation and sweet). It is commercially produced by distillation of its fruit (seeds) using steam distillation system. Its yield is approximately 1-6%. Distillation to make this essential oil should be done immediately after grain harvest. During the process of distillation of fennel oil, the condenser temperature should be kept rather high, to prevent freezing of the oil in the condenser tubes.
The main components found in fennel oil such as anthole, fenchone, and estragole. The presence of these components in that essential oil depending on the varieties. It is known as one component of Telon oil. Telon oil is a famous oils in Indonesia used to warm baby’s body (but not too hot).
Fennel essential oils are the most important of the Dulce variety contain anethol (50-80%), limonene (5%), fenchone (5%), estragole (methyl-chavicol), safrol, alpha-pinene (0.5%), camphene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene and p-cymen. Vulgare varieties are not used to be cultivated, because although it sometimes contain more oil, but this kind of fennel oil is characterized by a bitter fenchone (12-22%) so that it is cheaper than the other one from varieties of Dulce.
The content of fennel oil issued anethol causing a distinctive aroma and nutritious carminative. The roots contain bergaptene. Roots and seeds contain stigmasterine (serposterine). Pharmacological Effects and Outcomes Research: 1. Active components, anisaldehide, improving efficacy streptomycin for the treatment of tuberculosis in mice. 2. Improve the digestive tract and stimulate peristalsis expenditure fart (flatus). 3. Eliminate cold and phlegm. 4. It containing anethol, fenchone, chavicol, and efficacious anisaldehide soothing the digestive tract and works like a stimulant appetite. 5. From one study in adult humans, it is found that this oil has devastating effects of kidney stones. 6. In animal experiments, extracts of its leaf decoction can lower blood pressure. However, other ways of fennel oil processing do not show these properties.
Local Name
Hades (Sunda), adas, adas londa, adas landi (Jawa),; Adhas (Madura), adas (Bali), wala wunga (Sumba).; Das pedas (Aceh), adas, adas pedas (melayu).; Adeh, manih (Minangkabau). paapang, paampas (Menado).; Popoas (Alfuru), denggu-denggu (Gorontalo), ; Papaato (Buol), porotomo (Baree). kumpasi (Sangir Talaud).; Adasa, rempasu (Makasar), adase (Bugis).; Hsiao hui (China), phong karee, mellet karee (Thailand),; Jintan Manis (Malaysia). barisaunf, madhurika (Ind./Pak.).; fenkel, spigel.

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Jeruk Purut / Kaffir Lime Oils

Kaffir lime oil is generally produced by the method of steam distillation or steam from several parts of its trees. The trees height is between 2 and 12 metres. The trunk is rather small, curved or angular and branched low. Older stems are round, dark green, can be plain or mottled. The leaves is yellowish green and aromatic. The shape is round with a blunt tip and stemmed. Winged leaf stalk width, making it almost resembles a leaf.
The materials used to make essential oil are its leaves or skin.
Characteristics of the the oil from the leaves mainly dominated by volatile oil citronelal (80%), the rest is citronelol (10%), nerole, and limonene.
The essential oil that is derived from the industry was widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, antiseptics, etc.
The oil from the leaves in international trade is called kaffir lime oil. It is widely produced in Indonesia with an output of several tons per year. Kaffir lime oil consumption at this time is dominated by the fragrance industry, but its potential is quite large in flavor, although these kaffir lime oil do not have FEMA numbers.
The leaves contain 1.8% tannins, steroid triterpenoids, and essential oils from 1 to 1.5% v / b. Fruit skins contain saponins, tannins I%, steroid triterpenoids, and the kaffir lime oil containing citrate 2 to 2.5% v / b.
Kaffir lime oil total fraction contains 19 compounds with higher levels of the class of hydrocarbon monoterpenes (α-pinene (0.14%), sabinen (3.09%), β-pinene (0.18%), β-mirsen ( 1.42%), limonene (0.24%), β-osimen (0.76%), γ-terpinen (0.13%), α-terpinolen (0.16%)) and the class of oxygenated monoterpenes (linalol (4.89%), neoisopulegol (0.44%), citronellal (74.83%), terpinen-4-ol (0.22%), β-sironelol (7.82%), sitronelil acetate (2.64%), neril acetate (0.78%)), whereas seskuiterpene hydrocarbon group (trans-kariofilen (1.25%), α-humulen (0.21%), bicycloogermacrene(0.60%) and δ-cadinene (0.21%)).

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Cajuput oil (cejuput oil, oleum-melaleuca-cajeputi, or oleum cajeputi)

Cajuput oil is produced from the leaves of Melaleuca spp which belongs to the family and the order Myrtalae Myrtaceace. Some species are already known to produce the oil and is commercially cultivated is M. leucodendrom, M. cajuputih Roxb and M. Corn viridiflora. Its trees found naturally in the region of Southeast Asia, which grew in the lowlands or swamps but rarely found in mountainous areas. Its plants that grow in swamps have different chemical composition to that found in the lowlands. Plants that grow in swamps have sineol low levels, some even do not contain sineol, so it has no economic value.
In Indonesia, the plants growing in the Moluccas (Buru, Seram, Nusalaut, Ambon) and South Sumatra (along the Musi River, Palembang), Southeast Sulawesi, Bali, Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. In the area of the plants grow naturally, while plants that are cultivated in East Java and West Java.
Cajuput oil obtained by distilling the leaves of its plants in blue to green, while the oil that has been purified yellow to colorless and smells like camphor.
The main compounds of this oil is sineol which reached 65%. Given these components, cajuput oil can be directly used as medicines and perfumes. But abroad, it is also used as raw material for pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Other plants that also contain sineol are eucalyptus, with a levels of about 85%.
World demand for cajuput oil is estimated at more than 100 tons per year with the use of Asia's largest landmark, while in the world, eucalyptus oil is more used.
Melaleuca cajuputi sub sp. Cajuputi spread naturally in the Mollucas islands and northern Australia. This species has been widespread in Indonesia, especially in Java and the Moluccas by utilizing its leaves for distilled traditionally by the public and commercially to produce a high economic value oil. These plants have a long biological cycle, fast growing, can grow well in well drained soil and bad with high levels of salt and acid tolerant and open place and is resistant to the fire. The research of P3BPTH seedling types of its trees ancestry test in Gunungkidul obtained estimates for the genetic improvement of oil yield by 21% to the average population in the seed orchard, but when compared with the cajuput oil yield produced from the plant, the increase in the yield over 100%. On levels of 1.8 cyneole, produced an increase of 10%. As for the nature of crop growth obtained an increase of 15-20%. With the increase in its yield of 100%, it is expected that the production of cajuput oil can be increased to more than 2 times with the same crop area. Preparation of seedlings can be generative (seeds) and vegetative.
Quality of cajuput oil is classified into two, namely the quality of the Main (U) and quality of First (P). Both oil quality grade are distinguished by levels of cineol, which is a chemical compound derived terpene alcohol ester groups present in essential oils like cajuput oil. Cajuput oil quality has cineol content ≥ 55%, moderate quality of cineol levels less than 55%.
In general,its quality is said to have a distinctive odor, has a specific gravity measured at a temperature of 15oC for 0.90 to 0.93, has a refractive index at 20 Celcius degree temperature range between 1.46 to 1.47 and optical rotation at a temperature of 27.5 ° C (-4) - 0 degree. Refractive index is a number that indicates the ratio between the sine angle sine angle comes with a bias light, whereas the optical rotation in question is the magnitude of the playing field of polarization of a substance.
In addition, it will remain clear when tested solubility in alcohol 80%, ie in the ratio 1: 1, 1: 2, and so on till 1: 10. It is not allowed to contain the fats and oils of pelican. Fat oil is oil derived from animals and plants, such as beef tallow and coconut oils, which may be added as an ingredient in cajuput oil mixing. Likewise, the term describes a group pelican oil petroleum such as kerosene (kerosene) and petrol is used as mixing material for this oil, thus damaging the quality of the oil.
The most important part in these standards, in addition to determining the quality of the above, the test methods to determine its quality, both of which are listed in a document or packaging. Tests done in two ways, namely visual test methods and laboratories test. How to do a visual test for the test odor, while laboratories conducted trials to test the cineol content, specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, solubility test in 80% alcohol, fatty oil content and oil content pelican.

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Massoi oils / masoi oils

Masoi oil produced from the distillation of masoi (Cryptocarya spp) bark, has a fragrance (sweetish oil) and feels hot when exposed to skin. Cryptocarya spp grow wild in the eastern part of Indonesia's forests, height about 40 m. Trunked upright, the inside is red, while the dove-colored skin.
Masoi oil contains about 80% eugenol, and 6% terpene and safrole. It is a natural source of lactone. The content of safrole in the Masoi essential oil needed in the chemical industry, for heliotropin maker, raw material celluloide (film), cosmetics and fragrances.
Masoi oil is produced in Indonesia with an output of more than 5 tons per year in export destination countries such as USA, Europe, Australia and Japan.
Judging from its constituent chemical components, this oil is different from mace oils. It doesn’t contain eugenol, while the mace oils contain small amounts of eugenol. The main component in this oil is compounding massoilactone (C10H16O2).
On the island of Java, the bark are traded in the form of bundles, weighing about 10 kg bundle type and size of skin about 100 cm long and 5 cm wide. The bark is usually used as a mixture of traditional medicines, particularly in the manufacture of herbal medicine.
The plants consist of various varieties are included in the family Lauraceae, among others Cryptocaria massoi (especially found in Bogor). Massoi aromatica Baecari, Cinnamomum Cinnamomum culilawan xanthoneuron Blum and Blum.

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Cendana Oils (Sandalwood Oils)

Sandalwood oil (Santanum album L) in Indonesia are produced intensively on the island of Timor. Its plants in the form of a small evergreen tree with straight trunk and rounded with no groove. This plant is suitable in areas with cold and dry valve and the medium intensity of sunlight. Long dry months is very good influence on the formation of its essential oil and its fragrance. The small-leaved varieties has a higher sandalwood oil content in the wooden porch, but lower levels of santanol.
It is obtained from the distillation of the core of its rod with a long time of distillation process because of the high boiling point of the oil. Sandalwood oil yield is about 3-5%.
Its content is essential oils, hars, and tanning substances. Mainly from the its tree butts and roots, the aromatic oil can be distilled,. It is used in high quality soaps and as a perfumes fixative. Steam distillation, yields 5 sesquiterpene alcohols, epi-alpha-bisabolol, (Z)-alphasantalol, 2(E),6(E)-farnesol, (Z)-beta-santalol and (Z)-nuciferol. The percentage of epi-alpha-bisabolol increases with increasing height up the the trees and even the volatile fraction of a the dead branch contained. Two santalols,(Z)-beta-santalol and (Z)-nuciferol, were highest in the its buttwood.The main component of sandalwood oil is santanol. In international trade, santanol levels should be more than 90%, if not then the market will not accept it.
Estimated worldwide demand of sandalwood oil is more than 50 tons / year. Indonesia had ranked second after India (Myrose). They plays an important role in the fragrance industry. It can be used to perfume themselves, and can also be expensive for perfume binder (Violet, Cassie, Rose, Reseda, and Ambete).
In 2007, sandalwood oil export volume about 403,148 kg with an export value of U.S. $ 3,814,800 (CBS, 2008), up significantly from the previous year with only 21,751 kg of export volume and value of U.S. $ 1,736,214.
Sandalwood oil benefits is as antipyretic, analgesic, carminative, stomachache therapy, and diuretics.
Minister of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) from the Republic of Indonesia, Hassan Sharif, in March 2011 launched the handicraft from Cendana of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), became one of the national flagship product.
"The establishment of this superior commodity is in line with the program of the Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs about the "one village - one product " by utilizing existing resources in one area," he said, in Kupang, Indonesia at Friday, March 11, 2011.
According to the Minister, any programs to introduce a superior product that can be used as an area of national as well as superior commodity become viable to be export commodity.
He said that in addition to NTT wood crafts, either in the form of souvenirs or essential oil, the diversity of weaving in this area can also be a national flagship product.
"Because of the handicraft from Sandalwood and “Tenun ikat” (one of traditional weaving style at NTT - Indonesia) has long been known to the public, from the marketing campaign would not even be congested," he said.
To that end, the Minister asked the people in this area, supporting the program of NTT Government, which was determined to restore the popularity of this oil, by planting 10 million saplings of its plants.
The Minister added, regarding the marketing of excellent products, if one area is facing difficulties, the current Ministry of Cooperatives and SMEs have set up a building in Jakarta to be used as a location for a permanent exhibition and marketing, and is free of charge.
He said, if each regions in Indonesia have a superior product, there will be a wide variety of products offered on the market. While consumers are presented with many choices, too.
This step, he said, to encourage creativity and innovation in local economic actors both cooperatives and SMEs to create superior commodity, which have competitiveness.
"I also call attention to helping local governments and fostering cooperatives and SMEs in their respective areas to grow into an economic force that is able to prosper the community," he added.
However the growth of sandalwood oil industry in Indonesia is expected to ensure the utilization of crop yields

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Saturday, July 9, 2011

Kenanga Oils / Cananga Oils

Cananga oil obtained by distillation cananga flowers. In the local areas of Indonesia, small and medium scale processors usually distill that oil by boiling method. The distillates (kenanga oil) consist of several factions that have different composition and quality. Faction of this essential oil with the best quality is that contains high levels of ester and ether, low sesquiterpenes. It is still exported in a crude form. By American and European importers, it is usually precessed through rectification to produce clearer and more easily soluble oil. The final oil will shrink as much as 25%.
The plants (Cananga odorata) were spreaded from the Philippines. In Java, the plants grow wild. The plants thrive in the lowlands with high humidity, tropical climate and close to the beach. In Java, the plants is usually planted in the yard, but not cultivated. Producing areas of its flower in Java Island is (one of Indonesia big Island) is Banten.
The young flower is green, while the old yellow. The highest yield and quality of cananga oil have been found in the perfectly mature one(amber colored).
It is only produced in Indonesia with an output of 20 tons / year. Specialized in Java, cananga oil producing region is Boyolali and Blitar. In the world, cananga oil consumption is still limited compared ylang-ylang oil, but it is still important because of the smell of this oil is more durable and less expensive than ylang-ylang oil. In industry, it is used as a fragrance ingredient of soap.
The flowers are traded since ancient times in Java, especially to make a hair oil that is often used by Javanese women. In addition to nourish and improve the black color of the human hair., cananga oil aroma is also appealing. That's why it is known as a perfume tree. Parts of plants that can be used in cosmetics and herbal therapy are the flowers. Chemical content in the essential oil are benzoic, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, benzyl acetate, eugenol, safrol, cadinene and pinene. Its chemical compounds are volatile and are excellent for aromatherapy. It is also used to blend masks and scrubs.
Linalool as the cananga oil major component, can be converted into a compound that is linalil acetate esters. Linalil acetate useful as a perfume, cosmetics, and as an antibacterial. Changes in components of the oil as the esterification results will affect the antibacterial activity. Esterification reaction of linalool with acetic acid and catalyst ZnCl2 anhidrid use heating in refluxing resulting acetic linalil ester with yield of 13.25% while the esterification of linalool with no heating doesn’t produce acetic linalil ester. Heating affects the esterification reaction by increasing the acetic linalil ester resulted. The oil produced from that esterification has lower activity as an antibacterial for S. aureus.
According to Danna Amelia research , the cananga oil yield from steam distillation of its fresh flowers sample was 0.325% (w / w) while for the wilted flowers is 0.276% (w / w). Components of the oil from the fresh one are 1-methoxy-4-methyl benzene (3.05%), linalool (22.06%), geranyl acetate (7.54%), trans-caryophilene (28.06%), α -humulene (8.65%) and D-germacrene (21.91%), while the wilted one is, 1-methoxy-4-methyl benzene (2.79%), linalool (21.76%), trans -caryophilene (31.87%), α-humulen (9.25%) and D-germacrene (21.62%). The results of physico-chemical properties of cananga oil is yellow translucent in color, fragrant smell of kenanga, 0.9157 specific gravity and refractive index of 1.5039, while for oil of the wilted one is clear translucent in color, fragrant smell with a little burnt nuance, specific gravity 0.9138 and refractive index 1.5040 (Danna Amelia, 2011)

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Ginger oil

Ginger oil production is done by distillation (by steam distillation or water distillation) of its rhizome which had previously been dried in the form of flakes or powders. Average yield of this essential oil is 1-3% (dry) depending on its type, the effectiveness and the handling of the distillation. Ginger oil extraction with solvents produces a higher yield than the refinery, because not only its essential oil, but its oleoresin is also extracted, which provides the spicy flavor.
Environmental conditions where its plants can grow well is at about 2500-4000 mm rainfall per year, at a temperature of 25-35 ° C, and medium or high air humidity. The plant requires a fertile soil, friable, rich in humus and well drained; can also grow in soil and ground brown red latosol andosol.
The main compounds of ginger oil is zingiberene, and zingiberol which causes its typical smell. It is used as a raw material of soft drink, in the flavoring industry, pharmacy and perfumery.
Ginger oil is largely exported to USA, Singapore, Germany, India and South Africa, with the largest importers are USA. Indonesia is still the third largest producer after China and India in global markets, whereas the climate and land suitability of Indonesia is very potential.
Modern researchers support for its use as a 'traditional herb'. From the research, its extract, either from its fresh and dried rhizome, efficacious in dealing with bacterial infections, fungal infections, seizures, pain, wounds and gastric disorders, tumors, cramps and allergic reactions. The extract which is examined is the appropriate standard gingerol, which is an extract that does not lose flavor and sharp aroma.
Research on animal experiments ( mice) that is performed in China and western countries, showed that the fresh rhizome is effective for relieving pain and infection. Experiments in vitro (laboratory) showed that ginger oil inhibits oxidation (= are antioxidants) that may reduce the risk of cancer, and also inhibits the growth of microorganism such as bacteria.
Ginger oil is also beneficial for blood circulation. It has a property anticoagulant (anti blood clotting) that is more powerful than garlic or onion. It is also capable of lowering cholesterol levels because it can reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the blood and liver. Research conducted by experts in Japan showed that this oil can lower blood pressure by reducing peripheral blood flow rate.
Experts also try it to treat migraine. These tests are encouraged therapies to treat disorders of the nervous system. Its benefit as a migraine drug still requires further research.
In most cases preferred ginger oil research to determine their effect on digestion. In the land of China, the results of research conducted to humans showed that a drink made of fresh rhizome can reduce gastric acid secretion for several hours. Then it increased again after some time. Another study states that its dried root will strengthen the stomach, small intestine and prevents vomiting.
Recent studies indicate that acetone and methanol extracts from the rhizome has a strong effect to inhibit the occurrence of injury in the stomach. Other studies show that gingerol able to overcome the affect toxicity (poisoning) in the liver by increasing bile acid.

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Nutmeg Oil

Nutmeg oil which has the best quality in the world of commerce is derived from Myristica fragrans H. It needs a hot marine climates (25-30 ° C), but wet, rainfall 2500 mm / year. Its crops can be grown in the lowlands of less than 700 m above sea level on sandy soil mixed with humus. Its trees height can reach 12 m. The trees begin flowering and fruiting after the age of 4-6 years, and earning up to 25 years to bear fruit. Its shaped oval to oblong, and the outer portion of the rind. Under the flesh of the fruit, there is shell covered by red nets called mace. Under the shell there is the seed.
Its plants scattered in the region of Sumatra, Aceh, Java, Sulawesi and Mollucas. The largest cultivation areas are located in Aceh and Maluku.
Nutmeg oil production is performed by water and steam distillation from the its seeds. Its essential oil yield of about 7-16%, while the mace oil yield of about 4-15%. The oil from young seed produces a greater yield than the old.
The main compounds of nutmeg oil is myristin (miristin) which are toxic and has a narcotic effect, so the use of this oil in the food industry and medicine is very little. It is also used in the perfume industry and toothpaste.
Indonesia plays an important role in the world market of nutmeg oil because most of the needs of the world are supplied from this country. Other major producing countries are Granada, India, and Madagascar. More than 60% of the world's nutmeg from Indonesia with export volume of more than 200 tons / year, tends to stabilize until 2007. But in 2008, their nutmeg oil production declined drastically due to the pests that attack the crops in Sumatra. In the terms of its value, the development of the export value showed a significant increase.
There are three parts of its high economic value. Its mace, is widely used as a spice in cooking or being extracted to produce juice which has benefit as raw materials of cosmetics and perfumes. The brown seeds, is the most widely used. They are grinded into a variety of spices, perfumes, cosmetics, essential oils, preservatives etc.
Its plants (Myristica fragrans Houtt) are native to Indonesia from the Banda Islands and the Moluccas. Their notoriety as a spice plants has been known since the 16th century. In international trade, the seed from Indonesia is known as "Banda nutmeg". Until now, they are the world's largest producer. Its crops is known for its spice plants that have economic value. The fruit consists of pulp (77.8%), mace (4%), shell (5.1%) and seeds (13.1%). High economic value of the its fruit is provided by its seed and mace which can be extracted to be essential oil. One effort to use its flesh is to make candied nutmeg and syrup which is famous, delicious, and fragrant, and generally conducted by small household businesses. So, empowerment of that small businesses today need to be increased. Through the empowerment of this small scale business, the product is expected to be Indonesia export commodity exports accompanying seeds, mace and nutmeg oil.

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Clove oil

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) as a source of clove oil, including herbaceous plant species which can possess great trees and hardwood. Higher plants can reach 15-20 meters and can last up to hundreds of years. Its plants have unique properties because all the parts of trees contain oils, ranging from roots, stems, leaves to flowers. The content of this oil on the parts of these plants vary in number but the highest oil content found on the flowers (20%) while the handle and leaves contain approximately 4-6%.
Clove production area is spread in almost all regions in Indonesia from Aceh to Papua with an area of the largest in Java and Sulawesi. The area of the plant is increased slightly each year or more stable.
The simplest way of production to get its oil is by water and steam distillation with the old distillery around 7-8 hours for wet leaves and 6-7 hours for the distillation of dried leaves.
Use of the pressure gradually from 1 bar to 2 bar can shorten long distillation into 4-5 hours.
Clove leaf oil is yellowish until translucent in color having a spicy flavor, hard, and smelled its unique scent. The color of its oil will change to brown or purple if the oil comes in contact with iron or due to storage.
Its production center is located in Central Java, West Java, East Java, West Sumatera, Bali and South Sulawesi. In 2007, Indonesia produce about 2,500 tons with an estimated world consumption of about 3,500 tonnes / year. However, the volume of exports is very small, because most of this essential oil is processed into derivative products that are exported more on derivatives products, such as eugenol, eugenol acetate, etc..
Benefits of clove oil is not as popular as olive oil or eucalyptus oil, but it is also effective for health. It is a volatile oil that can be used as an alternative treatment. Many of the substances contained in clove oil showed the properties of antibiotics, anti-virus, anti-fungal and has efficacy as an antiseptic. In addition it was also found that it contain about 60-90 percent eugenol. The content of other compounds in this oil is manganese, omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, fiber, iron, potassium and calcium. Vitamins are needed by the body is also found in the oil, especially vitamin C and vitamin K.
Based on the research note that clove oil can reduce inflammation in the body, improve immune system naturally, improving blood circulation, increase metabolism and help cope with stress and depression.

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Lemongrass oil (Citronella oil)

The best known varieties for the raw material of lemongrass oil (citronella oil) are the varieties of Mahapegiri (as a source of Java lemongrass oil) and Lenabatu varieties (Cylon lemongrass oil). Mahapegiri varieties are capable of delivering quality and better essential oil yield compared with Lenabatu varieties. It is thought to have come from Sri Lanka. Latin name of its plant is Cymbopogon nardus L., including the tribe of Poaceae.
Area for its planting and production in Indonesia has a total area in 2007 amounted to 19592.25 ha, the largest is in the area of Java, especially West Java and Central Java. The market share and production reached 95% of the total production of Indonesia. The other areas are Aceh and West Sumatra. Production centers are in West Java: Purwakarta, Subang, Pandeglang, Bandung, Ciamis, Brass, Garut and Tasikmalaya, while in Central Java are Cilacap, Purbalingga and Pemalang.
To make lemongrass oil, the processors in Indonesia usually use a process of distillation for 3-4 hours. Average yield of this essential oil around 0.6 to 1.2% depend on its variety and handling and the distillation effectiveness .
Most important compounds of this oil are sitronellal and geraniol. Both of these components determine the intensity of the lemongrass oil odor, fragrance, and prices, so its content should be eligible for export requirements. It is used in industry, especially as soaps, sprays, disinfectant, plant-based pesticide, polish materials, gasoline octane enhancer and a variety of technical preparation.
The estimated world consumption of lemongrass oil in 2007 is more than 2000 tons / year. Indonesia is the world's third producer after China and Vietnam. Some countries are always actively buying it from Indonesia are Singapore, Japan, USA, Australia, Holland, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, India, and Taiwan, with major buyers are the U.S., France, Italy, Singapore and Taiwan. Lemongrass oil export volume is relatively small, amounting to 115.67 tons valued at U.S. $ 701.0 in 2004.
The composition of lemongrass oil
Its leaves: 0.4% essential oil consisting of citral, citronelol (66-85%), (a-phinene, camphene, sabinene, mirsen, ß-felandren, p-Simen, limonene, cis-osimen , terpinol, citronellal, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol, geraniol, farnesol, methyl heptenon, n-desialdehida, dipenten, methyl heptenon, bornilasetat, geranilformat, terpinil acetate, acetate sitronelil, geranil acetate, ß-element, kariofilen-ß, ß-bergamoten, trans-methylisoeugenol, ß-kadinen, elemol, kariofilen oxide. In another study found 1% with the major components (+) citronelol, geranial (approximately 35% and 20%), besides that there are also geranil butyrate, citral, limonene, eugenol, and methyleugenol. Citronelol isolation results from citronella oil consist of a pair of enantiomers (R)-citronellal and (S) citronellal. On the other kinds of Cymbopogon (Cymbopogon giganteus chiovenda) containing Essential oil consisting of limonene, p-Mentha-1, 5, 8-triene; 1.2 limonenoxyde, p-Mentha-2 ,8-dien-l-ol; Dean-2, 4-dien-l-ol, p-methylacetophenon ; trans-p-Menta-1 (7), 8-dien-2-ol; decan-2, 4-dienal; isopiperitenol; cis-p.menta-1 (7), 8-dien-2-ol; cis carveol; carvone; isopiperitenon; cuminil alcohol; perililaldehide; perilil alcohol.
Lemongrass oil and plant for traditional medicine
Roots: used as a laxative urine, cough medicine, materials for mouthwash, and body warmers. Leaves: used as a laxative stomach, appetite enhancer, post-natal treatment, lowering the heat and strain relief.

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