Saturday, July 9, 2011

Nutmeg Oil

Nutmeg oil which has the best quality in the world of commerce is derived from Myristica fragrans H. It needs a hot marine climates (25-30 ° C), but wet, rainfall 2500 mm / year. Its crops can be grown in the lowlands of less than 700 m above sea level on sandy soil mixed with humus. Its trees height can reach 12 m. The trees begin flowering and fruiting after the age of 4-6 years, and earning up to 25 years to bear fruit. Its shaped oval to oblong, and the outer portion of the rind. Under the flesh of the fruit, there is shell covered by red nets called mace. Under the shell there is the seed.
Its plants scattered in the region of Sumatra, Aceh, Java, Sulawesi and Mollucas. The largest cultivation areas are located in Aceh and Maluku.
Nutmeg oil production is performed by water and steam distillation from the its seeds. Its essential oil yield of about 7-16%, while the mace oil yield of about 4-15%. The oil from young seed produces a greater yield than the old.
The main compounds of nutmeg oil is myristin (miristin) which are toxic and has a narcotic effect, so the use of this oil in the food industry and medicine is very little. It is also used in the perfume industry and toothpaste.
Indonesia plays an important role in the world market of nutmeg oil because most of the needs of the world are supplied from this country. Other major producing countries are Granada, India, and Madagascar. More than 60% of the world's nutmeg from Indonesia with export volume of more than 200 tons / year, tends to stabilize until 2007. But in 2008, their nutmeg oil production declined drastically due to the pests that attack the crops in Sumatra. In the terms of its value, the development of the export value showed a significant increase.
There are three parts of its high economic value. Its mace, is widely used as a spice in cooking or being extracted to produce juice which has benefit as raw materials of cosmetics and perfumes. The brown seeds, is the most widely used. They are grinded into a variety of spices, perfumes, cosmetics, essential oils, preservatives etc.
Its plants (Myristica fragrans Houtt) are native to Indonesia from the Banda Islands and the Moluccas. Their notoriety as a spice plants has been known since the 16th century. In international trade, the seed from Indonesia is known as "Banda nutmeg". Until now, they are the world's largest producer. Its crops is known for its spice plants that have economic value. The fruit consists of pulp (77.8%), mace (4%), shell (5.1%) and seeds (13.1%). High economic value of the its fruit is provided by its seed and mace which can be extracted to be essential oil. One effort to use its flesh is to make candied nutmeg and syrup which is famous, delicious, and fragrant, and generally conducted by small household businesses. So, empowerment of that small businesses today need to be increased. Through the empowerment of this small scale business, the product is expected to be Indonesia export commodity exports accompanying seeds, mace and nutmeg oil.

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