Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Essential oil uses as rat repellent

Essential oil uses as rat repellent is one alternative to reduce the negative impact of the use of chemicals in controlling them. They are one of the major pests in agricultural activities. Damage caused by this pest can occur ranging from field to storage. In addition, the mice often carry a wide range of pathogens that can be transmitted to humans, i.e. Yersiniosis, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis and Lymphochytis choriomeningitis.
In the effort to overcome that obstacles, the various alternative control of mouse have been performed, both technical culture, physical, mechanical, and chemical. Chemical rat repellent is the most common alternative to be compared with other control method. This is understandable because the results of toxic chemicals uses can be immediately visible and can be easily applied to large areas.
However, the continuously use of chemicals to control various pests and diseases have led to many new problems, especially for the environment. The use of rat poison in storage areas or in homes have a greater risk, because of its toxic substances have a greater likelihood of contact with humans, pets and livestock, both directly and indirectly. It was reported also that the use of synthetic rodenticide has caused the rat to become more resistant. The use of materials that can resist the presence of the rodents or which is known as mice repellent is one way to control rats that are relatively more secure, because in general those materials are not toxic, but it works by affecting the their extra sensitive sense of smell.
The essential oil uses as rat repellent has been widely studied and researched in several laboratories and universities. Cahyani (2002) from Padjadjaran University of Indonesia, who tested several plant-based repellent materials, which include dragon wood (kayu naga), pandan leaves, jengkol or jering (Dogfruit or Archidendron pauciflorum or A. jiringa, Pithecellobium jiringa, P. Lobatum) and sandalwood oil (cendana oil) concluded that the treatment using sandalwood oil has the ability to reject the highest presence of the rat on a single treatment. The scent of sandalwood essential oil is appeared to affect the mind and behavior of rat. When inhaled, the aroma can provide a strong stimulus to the senses of smell. Because of the sandalwood oil scent, their very active behavior becomes calm or even reverse.
There are linkages between the specific scent of sandalwood with the mouse that have a very sensitive sense of smell. This indicates that certain scents can be used to get rid of rat. In addition to sandalwood oil, there are several other types that are commonly used in society, namely, among others, patchouli and vetiver essential oil. In a study conducted by Mardiningsih et al. (1995) from the Research Center of Spices and Medicinal Plants from Bogor Indonesia, a mixture of patchouli essential oil with naphthalene or with naphthalene and camphor in the form of solids and liquids which was absorbed on filter paper showed the repulsion against certain insects (Sitophilus zeamais and Carpophilus sp. In the results of this study also informed that its scent is a repellent of ants, cockroaches, moths cloth (Thysanura), Crocidolomia binotalis and Spodoptera litura.
Other type of essential oil aroma that is thought to have repellent power on rat is the vetiver. It is informed that from the vetiver essential oil refining area in Garut (West Java – Indonesia), in the vicinity of sewage treatment there were lots of mice population reduced after the introduction of sewage effluent treatment. So, it is suspected that its smell has the ability to repel rat.
The smell of patchouli essential oil has been shown in some studies may reject the presence of several types of insects, which include Sitophilus zeamay, Carpophilus sp. and Stegobium paniceum. Its content of patchouli alcohol compound acts as a repellent. It contains vetivone and vetivene, which are known to drive out to some of insects and antrophoda. Some products from the raw materials of vetiver plant part such as vetiver mats and tablecloths in the community are known to have the ability as a mosquito repellent and some other insect.
Based on the research of Natawigena et.al from Padjadjaran University (Indonesia), the scent of sandalwood, patchouli and vetiver essential oil absorbed on filter paper with a size 3 cm x 5 cm by 1 ml can repel the presence of mice in the experiments that have been conducted in the laboratory. The smell of vetiver essential oil is the aroma of the least preferred by rat in comparison with the others through the same way of application. It is one type of volatile substances which are difficult to evaporate and be able to retain its aroma longer. In addition, the essential oil uses as rat repellent also have other benefit as air freshener.

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Monday, September 12, 2011

Antibacterial essential oils

Antibacterial essential oils recently attracted worldwide attention, because its role in a natural treatment against infection. Why is that? Infectious diseases are still a major problem in the health field. Treatment of infections with a combination of antibiotics was originally believed to be a drug which capable of destroying the microbes causing the infection. But it is also known to raise new problems of the emergence of microorganism that is multiresistant. These microbes are easily transmitted from one patient to another, especially in hospitals, which is known as nosocomial infection. The situation prompted the researchers to find new, more effective drugs to treat the infections.
Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the pathogen bacterium of the most attacking humans. S. aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte on the lining membrane of the human body, the surface of the skin, sweat glands, and intestinal tract, whereas E. coli is a gram-negative bacteria are commonly found in the human colon as normal flora.
Several studies have found that the volatile compounds of betel leaf, ginger, and turmeric have activity as an antifungal and antibacterial. They are generally divided into two components, namely the class of hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon groups. The compounds derived from oxygenated hydrocarbons (phenols) have a strong antibacterial power.
Antibacterial essential oils from basil
Basil plants contain volatile compounds, but until now has not been cultivated. In Indonesia, basil plant is used for vegetables or salad as appetite boosters. Basil plants can be used as traditional medicine, to treat fever and nausea.
Biological activity that has been studied from the basil plant, among others, as antipyretic (lowers fever), carminative, laxative, and stimulates milk glands. Basil leaves essential oil are composed of hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, phenols (1-19% eugenol, iso-eugenol), phenolat ether (methyl clavicol 3-31%, 1-9% methyl eugenol), oxides and ketones. Based on the research of Maryati et. al (2007) from Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, Indonesia, basil essential oil has a better antibacterial activity on E. coli than on S. aureus.
Galangal (Alpinia galanga L.)
According to the research of Parwata and Dewi (2008) from Udayana University, Indonesia, galangal essential oil is more effective inhibit E. Coli than S. aureus. From the analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometer showed the galangal rhizome essential oil contain at least 8 antibacterial compounds: D-limonene; Eukaliptol; 3-cyclohexene-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl); phenol,4-(2-propenyl) acetate, 2.6-octadiene-1-ol, 3.7-dimethyl acetate; 1,6,10-dodecatriene, 7.11-dimethyl-3-methylene; pentadecane; cyclohexene,1-methyl-4- (5-methyl-1-methylene-4-hexenyl).
Flowers of Lagetan (Spilanthes paniculata Wall.)
Based on the research of Soetjipto (2008) from Satya Wacana Christian University, Indonesia, essential oil of Legetan flowers showed its bacteria inhibitory activity which was stronger against gram-positive, rather than against gram-negative. The main components of of lagetan flowers successfully identified as an antibacterial essential oils is a mixture of compounds: sabinene, β-phellandrene, β-ocimene, trans-cariophyllene, 1.11 - dodecadiena, α-humulene. , 1-pentadecene and β-pinene.

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Friday, September 9, 2011

Cinnamon oil benefits

Cinnamon oil benefits are numerous so that it can be used in many industries of food, beverages, medicines, cosmetics, flavors, fragrance, and cigarettes. Percentage of export value of Indonesia Cinnamomum sp. in 2005 to some major destination countries such as America, Germany, Netherlands and Singapore respectively are 46, 4, 11 and 4%. Some other products are: whole skin (stick), buds, oleoresin and materials for botanical pesticides.
Cinnamon oil as an antidiabetic
Inhibition of α-glucosidase in the intestine of mammals is capable of lowering blood sugar levels from the metabolism of carbohydrates so that cause the reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia to prevent chronic complications of diabetes melitus (DM). One of the groups that play a role in the inhibition of the enzyme a-glucosidase is a cinnamoyl group. Components of cinnamon oil containing cinnamoyl group is cinnamaldehyde. The main component is cinnamaldehyde (42-75%), while other components are eugenol, a-pinene, linalool and benzaldehyde. Based on the Ngadiwiyana et.al. research (2011) from Diponegoro University of Indonesia in Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, cinnamaldehyde has a potential as a compound inhibiting a-glucosidase enzyme activity that could be developed as antidiabetic compounds. On the other hand, its plants and oil has been used as traditional medicine for diabetes.
Cinnamon oil benefits for health in general
Its efficacy can cure rheumatism, gout, cough/ cold, eliminate body odor, lower cholesterol, relieve colds and prevent cancer.
Cinnamon oil as organic pesticide/ natural pesticides
According Towaha and Indriati (2008) from Balittri of Indonesia, cinnamaldehyde in its plant is also an excellent fungicide. The essential oil uses of 30% at doses of 12 ml/l and 15 ml/l suppressed the widespread attacks by 31.49% and 34.35%. The active component contained in the plant (cinnamaldehyde) is toxic to Blattella germanica L. pests. Cinnamaldehyde content in oil of the skin, twigs and leaves, respectively is 66.51, 12.15 and 38.31%. Utilization of plant-based pesticides is an appropriate alternative to the current control and needs to be developed at the farm level. Organic pesticides easily available and the price is relatively competitive with synthetic pesticides, its raw material is pretty much available around our farm like a waste product of essential oil industry while its negative impact on the environment, humans and livestock can be ignored. Cinnamon bark oil has been used as an organic pesticide formulation and is quite effective for controlling pathogens of Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Sclerotium rolfsii and Phytophthora cinnamomi.
Another benefits of cinnamon oil
The essential oil is used as a lubricant massage the body, because it can soften the skin as well as a nutrient for him. In addition, it is beneficial for treating the skin of spots and can strengthen teeth.
Special notes
Cinnamon oil benefits are numerous, but because its yield is very low so that its price is very expensive. The main consumers of its essential oil are Europe for the type C. zeylanicum and the United States for the type of C. cassia.

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Thursday, September 8, 2011

Essential oil for inhalation therapy

The uses of essential oil for inhalation therapy has a powerful effect on the sensory organs passed through by the active ingredients. It is known that sensors sense of smell in humans has high level of sensitivity. The sharpness of the sense of smell can be as high as 10,000 times more powerful than the sense of taste.
Aroma components of essential oil quickly interact when inhaled. These compounds interact with central nervous system and directly stimulate the olfactory system. Then this system will stimulate the nerves in the brain below the cerebral cortex equilibrium. The aromatic compounds or fragrance of a plant material has also showed to affect locomotor activity.
Locomotor activity is the activity of motion as a result of changes in electrical activity caused by permeability changes of postsynaptic membrane and by the release of the transmitter of neurons presynaptic at central nervous system.
Inhalation therapy using essential oil is very useful to overcome and alleviate the circumstances relating to the health condition of a person's body. They are especially the diseases associated with respiratory tract disorders and disturbances of other body systems. The purpose of the uses of essential oil for inhalation therapy is a way to channel the efficacy of that substances directly through passing its vapor directly or through the equipment for aromatherapy, such as inhalers tube and sprays, brazier, candles or electric heaters. Substances that are produced can be either gas, smooth steam droplets, smoke, and sublimation steam inhaled through the nose and swallowed through the mouth.
Aroma substances in the form of vapor droplet or in any other form that will moisten the respiratory tract by wetting the membrane on the nose, pharinks, trachea, bronchi, bronchiolus, and alveolus. In addition, the vapor can also affect one's psychological state through the stimulation received by the olfactory nerve terminal present in the mucous membranes of the nose, or the neural response area to other organs which the drops of vapor passing through.
The study of essential oils that affect locomotor activity initiated by Kovar et at. (1987) who reported that 1,8-cineole compounds isolated from rosemary oil can decrease locomotor activity of mice after the mice induced by caffeine stimulant compounds. Clinical testing of the sedative effects of lavender essential oil started by Buchbauer (1993) which has been proved that it can reduce locomotor activity in humans (Buchbauer, 1991). Etnofarmacology empirical studies on aromatherapy plants showed that Indonesia has 49 species of aromatic plants from 22 tribes, of which 12 types are used empirically as aromatherapy to soothe and refresh the body.
However, for certain purposes such as to dilute the phlegm or mucus in the respiratory tract, then the use of essential oil for inhalation therapy is not proven effective, contrary to traditional beliefs.

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Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Benefits of clove essential oil

The benefit of clove essential oil is not as popular as olive or cajuput oil. But it is good for health. Clove oil is volatile substances that can be used as an alternative treatment. Many of the substances contained in this commodity play important role as antibiotics, anti-virus, anti-fungal and has efficacy as an antiseptic. In addition it was also found that it contain about 60-90 percent eugenol.
The other contents are manganese, omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, fiber, iron, potassium and calcium. It also contain vitamins which are needed by our body, especially vitamin C and vitamin K.
The research note that it can reduce inflammation in the body, improve immune system naturally, improving blood circulation, increase metabolism and help cope with stress and depression.
Some of the health benefits of clove essential oil are:
1. They improve the respiratory condition. for people suffering from colds, nasal congestion, viral infections, asthma, tuberculosis or bronchitis can use it. Drink the mixture from 10-15 drops of good quality clove essential oil in a glass of boiled water. It is also effective to overcome the symptoms of sore throat.
2. They can cure a toothache. Its eugenol content can be a pain killer as well as bacteria and fungus naturally. Apply one drop of clove essential oil and olive oil to a cotton ball, then put on the tooth decay or pain tooth. This technique can also reduce inflammation.
3. It can reduce sore muscles and joints. Most of analgesic balm used to relieve muscular aches, joint pain, sprains and lumbago, contain 1,0 - 1,5 % eugenol (its unique alcohol substance). Its calcium, omega 3 oils and iron can also contribute to strengthen the joints and bones in the body.
4. It can serve for skin care. It can be used naturally to heal your skin, treat insect bites and reduce the infection.
Although it is a natural remedy, but you should consider before using it, since not many studies showed its effectiveness in humans.
For people who have a high sensitivity (hypersensitivity), should be careful in its use to avoid allergic reactions. Although there are so many benefits of clove essential oil, for people who are taking anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners) or antiplatelet drugs should be reconsidered for using it and consult your physician first.

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