Monday, October 31, 2011

Different types of essential oils

Essential oils (EO) are obtained by different methods -- distillation being the most familiar. There are four different types of essential oils: absolutes vs. concretes, expressed, solvent-extracted, and steam-distilled.
Absolutes are "essences," rather than "essential" oils. They are generally obtained from the extraction of a concrete with alcohol. A concrete is the solid waxy residue derived from hexane extraction of plant parts(usually the flower petals). This method is used for botanicals where the fragrance and therapeutic parts of the plant can only be unlocked using solvents. These are not to be used internally, as traces of petrochemicals remain in the product. Jasmine and neroli are examples of absolutes.
Expressed oil are pressed from the rind of fruits (usually citrus). Tangerines, grapefruits, lemons and oranges are produced by this method. Technically speaking, these are not EO - they are expressed product, but they are highly regarded for their therapeutic properties, none the less. It is best to use only organically grown crops for this method, since pesticide residues, especially highly toxic, carbamate and chloride-based petrochemicals, can become highly concentrated in this product.
Solvent extration involves the use of oil-soluble solvents, such as hexane, dimethylenechloride, and acetone. There is no guarantee that the finished product will be free of solvent residues. Steam distillation is the oldest and most traditional extraction method. Plant material is inserted into a cooking chamber, and steam is passed through it. After the steam is collected and condensed, it is processed through a separator to collect the product. The amount of pressure used, the amount of time the plant parts is steamed and the material the steam chamber is constructed of contribute a great deal to the quality of the product.
Glossaries related to the different types of essential oils
Absolute : the most concentrated form of fragance obtained when distilling a concrete.
Balsam : water soluble, semi-solid or viscous resinous exudate similar to that gum.
Concrete : a waxy concentrated semi-solid EO extract, made from plant parts, and is used to make absolute.
Essence : the liquid products resulting from the condensation of vapour from puree processing.
Essential oils : volatile aromatic liquid consisting the odorous principles botanical matter
Fixed oil : obtained from plants that are fatty and non-volatile
Flower water : the water resulting from the distillation of essential oils, which still contains some of the properties of the plant parts used in the processing.
Fractionated oil : it have been re-distilled, either to have terpenes removes or remove other substances.
Infused oil : its is produced by steeping the macerated botanical material in oil until it has taken on some the material properties.
Oleo gum resin : odoriferous exudation from botanical material consisting of essential oils, gum, and resin.
Oleoresin (OR): Natural resinous exudation from plants or aromatic liquid preparation extracted from botanical material. Solvent extraction of properly ground plant parts subsequent removal of solvent distillation gives dark coloured viscous products.
Resin : they are natural exudations from trees, prepared resins are OR from which the essential oils has been removed.
Resinoids : perfumed substances extracted from natural resinous material by using solvent.
Terpeneless : EO from which monoterpene hydrocarbons have been removed.
Tincture : either a herbal or perfume substances prepared in an alcohol base.
Volatile : substance that is unstable an evaporates easily, like an EO
Spice oil : EO obtained by steam or water distillation of ground spices and in some cases whole spices.
Perfume : liquid with a specific favour produced by mixing or blending two or more EO in a solvent
Different types of essential oils showed the effect on their chemical composition, properties, proper application, and application concentration, although it used the same raw materials.

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Sunday, October 30, 2011

Essential oil for natural sunscreen

Among the essential oil that can be used for natural sunscreen is ylang-ylang. This oil can be a single topical dosage form or mixed with other materials in the form of basal oil such as avocado, seed grain, and corn oil. This basal oil contain vitamin E, an antioxidant that can function as a protective skin from the damage caused by environmental factors such as dust, heat, radiation, and others.
Sunscreen is very beneficial to the skin from the influence of the hot sun. Especially for those who live in the tropics where the hot sunlight can burn the outer layer of the epidermis then the skin become darker because of pigmentation changes. By using natural sunscreen from ylang–ylang essential oil, skin health is expected to always awake.
It is a material that can absorb or scatter ultraviolet (UV) radiation which can be produced from organic materials. These compounds generally contain a benzene ring. One of the active components is 4-methoxy octyl cinnamic which can be synthesized from the Claisen condensation reaction between 4-methoxybenzaldehyde and octyl acetic. Eugenol, seen from its structure (aromatic ring, allyl functional groups, hydroxy, and methoxy), can be converted to derivatives such as 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Eugenol is a component of clove essential oil. By replacing the octyl group with other alkyl compounds, it is expected to produce a better sunscreen activity. Their activity is shown by the SPF value (sun protection factor). The value expressed the ability of a component to protect the skin from sun damage.
The results Dwiyono et.al., students from Gadjah Mada University - Indonesia, showed that the condensation reaction of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, a derivative of eugenol, and hexyl acetic produced 3,4-hexyl dimethoxy hexylbenzaldehyde. This essential oil natural compound has the activity of the protection against UV-B ray regions that can be classified as UV-B sunscreen compound.

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Friday, October 28, 2011

Essential oil chemical changes

Essential oil chemical changes is usually attributed to such general reactions as oxidation, resinification, polymerization, hydrolysis of esters, and to interreaction of functional groups. These processes seem to be activated by heat, the presence of air, of moisture, and catalyzed by exposure to light and in some cases, possibly by metals.
There is no doubt that oils with a high content of terpenes (all citrus oils, pine needle oils, oil of turpentine, juniper berry, etc.) are particularly prone to spoilage, due probably to oxidation, and especially resinification. Light seems to be of lesser importance as a factor causing deterioration, than is moisture.
Essential oils containing a high percentage of esters (bergamot, lavender, etc.) turn acid after improper storage, due to partial hydrolysis of esters. The aldehyde content of certain oils (for example, lemongrass) gradually diminishes as the essential oil chemical changes take place. Fatty oils, with a few exceptions, are very prone to oxidation, but such spoilage can be retarded or prevented altogether by antioxidants. Certain types, especially those containg alcohols (for example, geranium), are quite stable and stand prolonged storage. Still others, patchouli and vetiver, for instance, improve considerably on ageing; in fact, they should be aged for a few years before being used in perfume compounds.
As a general rule, any essential oil should first be treated to remove metallic impurities, freed from moisture and clarified, and then be stored in well-filled, tightly closed containers, at low temperature and protected from light. A layer of carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas blown into the container before it is sealed will replace the layer of air above the oil and thereby assure added protection against oxidation. Nevertheless, moisture seems to be one of the worst factors in itsspoilage and, therefore, any moisture must be removed prior to storing.
The effect of essential oil chemical changes is on their physical properties such as increase or decrease in their viscocity, color change, and loss of scent.

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Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Retort for essential oil distillation

Retort for essential oil distillation is often referred as tanks. It is a vessel where the contact between the plant substances with steam takes place and then it vaporizes the volatile compounds. Its simple form is a cylindrical with a diameter equal to its height or slightly smaller, and equipped with a lid that can be raised and can be attached with a clamp on the cylindrical body.
The lid should be attached strong and tight enough with vessel so that no moisture can loose during the refining process takes place. At the top of cylinder was placed a kind of swan neck that can flow the vapor to the condenser. In the water distillation method (WD), liquid H2O and plant material is filled into the retort, and then heated. The steam along with essential oil will evaporate together, then head to the goose neck and condense.
In the water and steam distillation method (WSD), an open container is stationed in the form of plates with holes (can also be a coarse sieve from metal) on the bottom inside the retort for essential oil distillation, which is used to hold plant material above the water surface.
During the processing of seed (whole or have been grinded), this container should be covered with cloth or others so that the seed do not pass down. This container must be sufficiently far above the bottom so that the liquid H2O can be filled pretty much into the vessel without any contact with the material and drought does not occur during the processing. As an illustration, for the retort which has 60 cm height, the container should be 20 cm above the bottom.
In WD method, the tank should be wider so that the raw plant parts can be submerged in liquid H2O. It will produce more yield and better quality. Height and diameter of the tank on the WSD are approximately equal. If you have more quantity of the material, so the tank height must be adjusted. All you need to know is it must be maintained so that it is not too dense to allow the steam move freely toward the top through them. In addition, it should also be made an instrument that can detect the water level in the vessel to avoid drought during the processing. To prevent heat lost, it would be good if the entire surface of the retort for essential oil distillation is coated with heat-resistant layer, such as asbestos.

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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Health benefits of essential oil

The health benefits of essential oil today is as a source of natural medicine which is safe and inexpensive, through the aroma therapy method. This is quite reasonable, because they contain chemical content of active ingredient that has efficacy and rapid effect in helping to cure diseases. The active ingredient is also an effective and practical cosmetic material.
The effect of essential oil on health can be explained through the following mechanisms:
1. Its molecules are very small so it can easily be absorbed through the blood capillaries to flow throughout the body tissues. The active substances then circulated to all body tissues, so it will be easier to reach the locations/target to be treated (target site).
2. They have also properties to get dissolved easily in the fat or fat-soluble, so it is easily absorbed into the skin layers and the layers underneath the skin (subcutaneous) when applied or rubbed.
3. They can relieve tension in muscles that are experiencing fatigue due to excessive activity.
4. The health benefits of essential oil can be explained through the effects of active substances which can affect the lining of the intestinal wall directly, lenders membrane, and the muscles in the bowel wall when consumed internally via the oral route.
5. It can also affect the impulses and nerve reflexes received by the ends of nerve receptors in the outermost layer of skin beneath the epidermis layer. In addition, they can affect the work function activity of the brain through the nervous system associated with the sense of smell. This response will be able to stimulate increased production of nerve conduction of the brain (neurotransmitters), which is related to the recovery of psychological conditions (such as emotions, feelings, thoughts, and desires).
6. They can also affect the lymph nodes. In this case, the effectiveness of active substances can help prostaglandin production which plays an important role in regulating blood pressure, controlling the pain, and hormonal balance.
7. Other health benefits of essential oil is to help the performance of enzymes, among others, the digestive enzymes that play a role in stimulating appetite; hydrochloric acid, pepsin, mucin and other substances that exist in the stomach.

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Thursday, October 13, 2011

Essential oil for skin softening

Essential oil for skin softening are suitable by using the essential oil of camomile, patchouli, sandalwood and a mixture of all three materials. Those types can be used as a perfume or aroma therapy inhalation. They can also be used in a variety of body care products like hand body, body lotion, body scrub, body mask, and the powder component. The others types are excellent for use in the bath, or afterwards in the form of herbal bath and body wash.
Combine with a healthy lifestyle
All women off course dream about a beautiful skin. Further more if they have already got married, the husband's praise will surely make their effort to treat theirs so meaningful. Caring your beauty is not expensive. If you like to eat vegetables, then get the dream by eating certain herbs. There are a few tips that can make you have the dream. It certainly will make you more and more confident.
For those who live near the tea garden, make it a habit to drink green tea. Green tea has many benefits, among others, stop inflammation, slow the DNA damage, and prevent sunburn skin. For them lived in town, it would be obtained by purchase.
Next, look for plants producing omega-3 fatty acids. Essential fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 prevent yours from dryness and excess oil.
Using essential oil for skin softening will give us a better impact if it is followed with good nutrition. Essential fatty acids are the fats that make yours smoother and looking younger. Its sources include olive oil, canola oil, walnuts and salmon, sardines and mackerel.
Next, seek out plants producing vitamin E. It is an antioxidant that becomes a shield from damage caused by sun exposure. They also acts as an anti-inflammatory and immune system enhancer. Sources of foods rich in vitamin E include vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, olives, spinach, asparagus and leafy greens.
The easier way is eating the herb producing vitamin C. They protect yours from the sun. They also repair damage caused by free radicals, which damage the skin reinforcing fibers such as collagen and elastin. Source of vitamin C among other are peppers, citrus fruits, papaya, kiwi, broccoli, green leafy vegetables.
You should also eat a lot of herbs that contain vitamin A. Eat fruits and vegetables such as carrots. Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamin A, which moisturize the skin inside. The other sources are green vegetables, eggs and low fat milk such as cheese.
This one is special, indeed somewhat strange name that is selenium. Selenium is a trace mineral that protect skin cells from free radical damage. Selenium might also plays an important role in preventing cancer. Foods that are rich sources of selenium include brazil nuts, mushrooms, shrimp, lamb, tuna, salmon. Selenium is also found in cooked beef, sardines, crab and pasta wheat.
Facial tips using essential oil
To make facial smoothing concoction in the form of 'liniment' (solution in oil), use olive oil as a basal oil or emollient cream base. Pure olive oil is believed to create a soft glowing skin, compared to other types. It helps you to lubricate yours and make it look healthy glow. Add a drop of essential oil into the basal oil with the proper dose. This herb can also be applied evenly on yours or can be mixed with warm water and used as a facial compress.
So, the use of essential oil for skin softening becomes one of the alternative methods that need to be supported with a natural healthy lifestyle.

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Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Basil essential oil benefits

Basil essential oil benefits may be not known by the public because traditionally, basil (Sundanese: surawung) are familiar to us as raw eaten vegetable. We often encounter it in the traditional market or displayed on supermarket shelves that are sold in a small bond. The price is relatively cheap. People usually buy it just for salad or as an aromatic spice in cooking. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae, which means the group of plants with lipped flowers. Its genus name is Ocimum that means scented plant. Its distinctive aroma comes from the leaves. It is closely related to ocimun sancium, mint (Mentha arvensis), and cumin leaves (Coleus amboinicus). Mint leaves in the Sunda tradition (society of West Java – Indonesia) is known as karesmen, commonly eaten raw.
In Jakarta, only its fresh leaves sold in supermarkets are packed in a small tube container. It is widely used as an aromatic spice blend for Italian cuisine, such as sphagetti sauce or pizza sauce. Its plants have many varieties. In Indonesia it has botanical name: Ocimum basillicum. It grows in groups (like bush). In Jakarta, it is commonly used in typical Betawi dish, side dish like rice or laksa. In West Java, it is used in a variety of delicious Sundanese dishes such as ulukutek oncom leunca (sauteed leunca), pais side dish (fish pepes), laksa bogor or Karedok. While in the area of East Java, its leaves served with krawu rice, botok, trancam, tempeh or. In Manado cuisine - tasty pasty food - spiked with the leaves as a complementary dish.
In India and parts of Africa, infusion of "basil tea" is commonly served to replace the original tea leaves drinks. The drinks are usually served during the change of seasons, when the person susceptible to coughs, colds, or fevers. In Europe, basil essential oil is distilled and sold. It is widely used as an ingredient for the manufacture of drugs or treatments such as soap, perfume essences, body lotion, ointment, candy lozenges, as well as aromatherapy.
According to the "List of Food Composition" from Nutrition Directorate of the Ministry of Health (Indonesia), it is grouped into vegetable which is rich in provitamin A. Each 100 g of its leaves contained 5000 of vitamin A. Another advantages, it is including vegetables that contain lots of minerals of calcium and phosphorus, which is about 45 and 75 mg per 100 g of leaves.
Indonesia people have long recognized it as a functional food which is delicious. Hereditary, it is used to overcome flatulence or colds. If your infants and toddlers suffer from bloating or fever, just apply the leaves and the squeeze of the red onion with coconut oil on the abdomen, chest, and backs (because babies can not eat.
If you encounter problems with body odor, bad breath, or milk jam, it can be overcome by familiarizing yourself to eat a salad of its fresh leaf. Alternatively, you may drink its leaf juice that have been mashed together with beluntas leaves and turmeric leaves. In the book of "A Dictionary of Practical Medical Materials", John Henry M. mention, basil leaves juice is efficacious to cure diarrhea, breast pain, kidney stones, disruption of the vagina, and also can overcome albuminaria, or the concentrated albumin in the urine.
According to the team of researchers from the Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Purdue University, USA, it is proven to cure headaches, colds, diarrhea, constipation, intestinal worms, and kidney disorders. They also suggested the efficacy of treatment with its leaves, which can cope with heartburn, flatulence, colds, convulsions, and lethargy. In addition, the basil aroma can repel the mosquito.
What are basil essential oil benefits ?
Since ancient time, it is distilled to take the basil essential oil. John Henry classified them as high volatile oil. That is, the scent of basil disappear soon after 24 hours application to the body. For comparison, the medium one will disappear after 3 days after its application, while the category of low volatile oil showed the lost after a week.
Essential oil of basil can be used for aromatherapy massage because it can relieve and refresh our body. However, pregnant women are prohibited from using it because it is possible to cause a miscarriage.
In addition, basil essential oil could overcome digestive disorders such as indigestion, vomiting, intestinal infections, stomach ulcers, and gas in the intestine. Also, disorders of the head (such as ear pain, fever, nasal pain, migraine), muscle disorders (spasms or cramps), and neurological disorders (anxiety, depression, hysteria, nervous weakness, insomnia).
For men, there are also basil essential oil benefits. Its 1-8 sineol compounds can overcome the problem of premature ejaculation. Its eugenol content may facilitate the occurrence of an erection. While its arginine substances can strengthen the vitality of the sperm and prevent infertility.
As for women, it is including healthy food which is very useful. It is rich in anetol and boron compounds that stimulate the hormone estrogen, whereas its eugenol compound can kill fungi that cause vaginal discharge. Its stigmaasterol substances stimulate the maturation of the egg (ovulation), and its zinc content reduces the secretion of vaginal fluids. Its tryptophan substances could delay monopause. So, it is not the usual vegetables because basil essential oil benefits should not be underestimated.

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Sunday, October 2, 2011

Clove leaf essential oil business

Clove leaf essential oil business in some areas of Central Java, Indonesia is facing a tough challenge. Many owners of this business in a number of villages at the district of Kaligesing (Purworejo - Indonesia) complained of capital difficulty. They can not buy in large quantities clove leaves from the collectors and growers.
This fragrant product is limited because of clove leaves to run out in one or double times of distillation process. Though the price of its essential oil was improved in the range of Rp 125,000 per kilogram. "Now the price is good, but our capital is limited," said Dahlan, one of the employers in the Village District Tlogoguwo Kaligesing, to Kedaulatan Rakyat News, Thursday (9/29/2011). He claimed to have only one ton of the raw material. That raw material is expected to be discharged to a one-time process. Typically, Dahlan have it as much as two to three times.
Dry season, he continued, is the harvest period for clove leaf essential oil business. Farmers actively seek and collect the dry leaves that fall on their farms. Abundant supply of those leaves make any entrepreneur can process it every day. During the dry season, Dahlan claimed to have processing approximately 78 times. In fact, when the rainy season, a maximum of only six times of distillation did. Nevertheless, the processing could be maximized if employers easily get the raw material. Tlogoguwo distiller workers, Giman added, the price of the dried leaves also increased. When the rainy season, the businessmen buy Rp 1,200 per kilogram, but now it is Rp 1,810 per kilogram.
According to him, each time the process, employers need between 8-9 hundred pounds of leaves. After cooking for about eight hours, it will produce 18-19 kilograms of oil. "The oil we sell directly to the merchant who is also a partner of venture capital lender," he said. Despite these obstacles become significant problems for clove leaf essential oil business, but it should be an opportunity for investors who are interested to benefit from these fragrant compounds.

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Saturday, October 1, 2011

How to use essential oil for aromatherapy

Before starting the treatment, your way of how to use essential oil for aromatherapy need to be considered in order to obtain optimal benefits. This is useful for selecting the appropriate types. Currently, the most common type, such as lavender, peppermint, and eucalyptus is obtained through the distillation process.
In general, when you use it, use the smallest amount of them that will be done. It should only be used in the body after receiving a detailed consultation and prescription from a practitioner who trained and qualified aromatherapist. The smoke from its burning may contain potentially carcinogenic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). They naturally have the high content of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of them should be avoided during pregnancy or by people with asthma, epilepsy, or with other health conditions.
Here are some tips on how to use essential oil for aromatherapy:
1. Using them means using ingredients that contain chemicals with specific effects. Therefore, be aware of the procedures whether inhaled or just applied to our skin.
2. In choosing its products, should be adjusted with its use. This can be achieved if you select the right type.
3. It would be better if you select the product derived from plants, rather than synthetic materials.
4. In order not to cause side effects, it is worth if you first tested on the skin before you use it for aromatherapy,. Dilute a small amount of them and apply it on the inside of your arm. Do not use the pure one on your skin. Keep it out from the eyes and mucous membranes.
5. Add 7-10 drops of them in bath water directly or mixed with 1 teaspoon vegetable oil. Stir in water to form the number of 8. Soak in it for at least 15 minutes.
6. Massage helps the skin absorb it.
7. Use lavender essential oil for sheets and blankets at bedtime to sleep more relaxed.
8. Avoid using it after sweating or after come from the sauna.
9. Avoid the hot sun or bask in bed after using it.
Thus, this tips for aromatherapy will affect your success to gain the purposes or benefits you had planned.

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