Monday, July 18, 2011

Organic pesticides from essential oils in Indonesia

The demand for organic pesticides or plant-based pesticides as a main component in the control of nuisance organism plant increased directly as the development of organic agriculture with the world market demand of U.S. $ 17.5 billion at the rate of increase in demand of 10-20% per year. In Indonesia, the government since 2002 has been put in motion Go Organic 2010, with the aspiration to make Indonesia as one of the major producers of natural food in the world. Indonesia National Standard which sets out the Organic Food Systems has banned the use of synthetic chemical compounds, but suggest the use of natural pesticides and control mechanically.
There are 2400 species of plants that have a property to be used as organic pesticides in the broad sense. A variety of volatile plant that grows in the land of Indonesia has been known to have the potential to be used for this purpose in the scope of agriculture to control plant bug, including insects, mammals, pathogens cause plant diseases (fungi, bacteria , viruses, nematodes) and weeds. Farming communities in various regions generally have local knowledge in the use of plants around them to be used to protect crops and livestock.
Chinese society has also utilize many kinds of of organic pesticides from essential oils that some of the same kind as the oils found in Indonesia, such as neem and melaleuca.
In addition to use on the farm, organic pesticides can also be used in the household environment. Essential oils of some plants such as lemongrass, neem, lavender and geranium are effective as a mosquito repellent. Citizens in Papua zodia leaf rubbed into their bodies as a mosquito repellent before entering the forest for hunting, collecting forest products or farming.
Besides as a pest repellent, essential oils can also be used as a decoy compound (attractant) for specific bugs in the field. Formula attractants for fruit flies (Bactocera hector) is made and basil oil and melaleuca has been widely used by horticultural farmers in the country as the organic pesticides to control fruit flies in the star fruit, guava, red peppers, apples, jackfruit, papaya, mango, melon, and tomatoes.
In the environment around the settlements, some volatile plant can be grown and placed in such a way in the yard or indoors. Some of the plants mentioned are: Meulaleuca, Basil, Mimba, Seraiwang, Nilam and Zodia. Future research is needed to study this potential so it can be utilized optimally with due respect to effectiveness, efficiency, security and aesthetics.
Essential oils of clove, neem, and citronella plant are the raw material of organic pesticides with the multipurpose broad use or because it can serve as an organic pesticides, insecticide, fungicide, bactericide and anti-virus. Extracts of clove, lemongrass, and turmeric reported to be effective to kill golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) with mortality reaching 100 percent. Extracts of the plant cloves, jeringau and piretrum also proved effective as an organic pesticides to pepper pests (Dasynus piperis, Diconocoris hewetti, Aphis craccivora, A. gossypii, Ferrisia virgata) and mosquitoes (Culex sp.) Researchers at IMACRI, Indonesia has also produced repellents "Mimba" and "Namus" made and neem oil and lemongrass. Has also produced anti-mosquito liquid fuels "Naumi" which comprises raw materials and kitchen lemon grass, patchouli, clove, cinnamon, lemongrass and nutmeg scent. This product is a fragrant scent, safe and suitable for use indoors. Formula attractants for fruit flies (Bractocera hector) is made from basil oil, neem and zodia (ATLABU) has been widely used by horticultural farmers in the country as an organic pesticides to control fruit flies in the star fruit, guava, red peppers, apples, jackfruit, papaya, mangoes, melons, and tomatoes.

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