Saturday, July 9, 2011

Lemongrass oil (Citronella oil)

The best known varieties for the raw material of lemongrass oil (citronella oil) are the varieties of Mahapegiri (as a source of Java lemongrass oil) and Lenabatu varieties (Cylon lemongrass oil). Mahapegiri varieties are capable of delivering quality and better essential oil yield compared with Lenabatu varieties. It is thought to have come from Sri Lanka. Latin name of its plant is Cymbopogon nardus L., including the tribe of Poaceae.
Area for its planting and production in Indonesia has a total area in 2007 amounted to 19592.25 ha, the largest is in the area of Java, especially West Java and Central Java. The market share and production reached 95% of the total production of Indonesia. The other areas are Aceh and West Sumatra. Production centers are in West Java: Purwakarta, Subang, Pandeglang, Bandung, Ciamis, Brass, Garut and Tasikmalaya, while in Central Java are Cilacap, Purbalingga and Pemalang.
To make lemongrass oil, the processors in Indonesia usually use a process of distillation for 3-4 hours. Average yield of this essential oil around 0.6 to 1.2% depend on its variety and handling and the distillation effectiveness .
Most important compounds of this oil are sitronellal and geraniol. Both of these components determine the intensity of the lemongrass oil odor, fragrance, and prices, so its content should be eligible for export requirements. It is used in industry, especially as soaps, sprays, disinfectant, plant-based pesticide, polish materials, gasoline octane enhancer and a variety of technical preparation.
The estimated world consumption of lemongrass oil in 2007 is more than 2000 tons / year. Indonesia is the world's third producer after China and Vietnam. Some countries are always actively buying it from Indonesia are Singapore, Japan, USA, Australia, Holland, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, India, and Taiwan, with major buyers are the U.S., France, Italy, Singapore and Taiwan. Lemongrass oil export volume is relatively small, amounting to 115.67 tons valued at U.S. $ 701.0 in 2004.
The composition of lemongrass oil
Its leaves: 0.4% essential oil consisting of citral, citronelol (66-85%), (a-phinene, camphene, sabinene, mirsen, ß-felandren, p-Simen, limonene, cis-osimen , terpinol, citronellal, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, a-terpineol, geraniol, farnesol, methyl heptenon, n-desialdehida, dipenten, methyl heptenon, bornilasetat, geranilformat, terpinil acetate, acetate sitronelil, geranil acetate, ß-element, kariofilen-ß, ß-bergamoten, trans-methylisoeugenol, ß-kadinen, elemol, kariofilen oxide. In another study found 1% with the major components (+) citronelol, geranial (approximately 35% and 20%), besides that there are also geranil butyrate, citral, limonene, eugenol, and methyleugenol. Citronelol isolation results from citronella oil consist of a pair of enantiomers (R)-citronellal and (S) citronellal. On the other kinds of Cymbopogon (Cymbopogon giganteus chiovenda) containing Essential oil consisting of limonene, p-Mentha-1, 5, 8-triene; 1.2 limonenoxyde, p-Mentha-2 ,8-dien-l-ol; Dean-2, 4-dien-l-ol, p-methylacetophenon ; trans-p-Menta-1 (7), 8-dien-2-ol; decan-2, 4-dienal; isopiperitenol; cis-p.menta-1 (7), 8-dien-2-ol; cis carveol; carvone; isopiperitenon; cuminil alcohol; perililaldehide; perilil alcohol.
Lemongrass oil and plant for traditional medicine
Roots: used as a laxative urine, cough medicine, materials for mouthwash, and body warmers. Leaves: used as a laxative stomach, appetite enhancer, post-natal treatment, lowering the heat and strain relief.

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