Friday, August 26, 2011

Natural antibiotic from essential oil

Essential oil has been widely used as natural antibiotic in developed countries and some developing countries, especially in countries where there are laws that prohibit the use of certain antibiotics, for example, the ban of avoparcin use at Denmark in 1995 and 1996 at Germany. Then in 1997, avoparcin was banned from use in Europe. The others such as streptogramin, virginiamycin, tylosin and Zn-bacitracin are also known causing human health problems and banned.
The workings of natural antibiotics from essential oil
In vitro studies showed that volatile compounds from various plants have antimicrobial and antifungal that can inhibit and kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as other pathogenic bacteria in the digestive tract.
Active substances carvacrol and thymol from oregano and thyme can lower the incidence of Proline proliferative enteropathy (PE) caused by Lawsonia intracellulari and coccidiosis in chickens. Both types of the disease are known worldwide as the cause of economic loss.
Green tea extract can not only improve the condition of the microflora in the human digestive tract, but also inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle and chickens. The essential oil of cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, garlic, rosemary, tea, fennel, black cumin, blackberry, peppermint, nutmeg, turi flowers (Sesbania grandiflora syn. Aeschynomene grandiflora), and Indonesian bay-leaf or Indonesian laurel are also known to decrease the incidence of diarrhea in cattle and chickens and reduce mortality in chickens .
Furthermore, oregano improves skin color of chicken eggs and improve the condition of chicken manure (no wet dirt). Application of thymol and carvacrol can stop fermentation in cattle feces, inhibiting the formation of short chain fatty fly, and reduce the smell of dirt.
Laboratory analysis showed that there is no residue left due to the use of natural antibiotic from essential oil are and an increase in carcass quality. From the economic point of view, they can lower the cost of livestock production and is believed to stimulate the decline in meat prices, so that more poor people are able to purchase and consume meat. And the absence of certain political influence, increasing of protein consumption decreases the incidence of malnutrition.
The concept of livestock production without the use of synthetic antibiotic is new concept and it can be applied in tropical countries, although it is in the environmental stress conditions such as temperature, humidity, and disease. The use of essential oils in Indonesia to be important in improving the quality of products from livestock demanded to be able to compete with products from the foreign countries. Moreover, the requirements of importing countries become more complex, such as free from various diseases and the standard requirements of the antibiotic residues.
Therefore, natural antibiotic from essential oil should be developed further to provide safe and good quality food, and also not cause other negative impacts on humans.

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Tuesday, August 23, 2011

Organic insecticide from pepper spices

Did you know that the spices in your kitchen, hiding incredible potential as an organic insecticide? One is Pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the spices which never missed its presence in a mixture of Indonesian cuisine proved capable of controlling warehouse pests/ insect of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), which can cause damage to 70% on green beans in the warehouse. Control of C. maculatus in storage is commonly done is by fumigation. However, excessive fumigation and continuously can have negative impacts, including resistance, resurgence, as well as the effect on human health and the environment.
Green beans or mung bean are one source of vegetable protein from beans class that cultivated by many farmers in Indonesia. But in the cultivation of green beans, farmers frequently encounter problems in the field or in storage (postharvest). The problem that often arises in the storage warehouse is pest Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). The use of spice plants as botanical insecticides is a method that is economical and easy control of the bugs attacks.
Utilization of pepper as an organic insecticide or plant-based insecticides is an environmentally friendly alternative and in accordance with the principles of Integrated Management of Warehouse Pest. Based on the research, pepper gets its spicy heat mostly from the piperine compound, which is found both in the outer fruit and in the seed. Black pepper contains between 4.6% and 9.7% piperine by mass, and white pepper slightly more than that. Refined piperine, by weight, is about one percent as hot as the capsaicin. While the pepper essential oil contains Limonene, pinene, myrcene, Phellandrene, beta-caryophyllene, Beta-bisabolene, Sabinene, Linalol, Pinocarveol, Alpha, terpineol, Camphene, Alpha, Terpenene. Piperine and its essential oil work together as a nerve poison and stomach poison . Its fruit is euthanizing or anesthetizing because of its piperine substances which have similarities to morphine (an alkaloid).
How to get rid of bugs using pepper and other spices
Its seeds finely ground and then sieved with a sieve mesh size of 0.05 to get the powder. Then, the powder is mixed evenly on the surface of mung bean seed with a minimum concentration of 0.5% (w / w). The powder will coat the entire surface of the mungbeen seeds, resulting in pest C. maculatus reluctant to lay their eggs on the surface of the green beans (kacang hijau). The powder also penetrate into the pores of the surface of mungbeans, causing C. maculatus larval would not grow well, and eventually die. This experiment has been tested in insect physiology and toxicology laboratory, Department of Plant Protection., Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) of Indonesia.
The experimental result showed that the spice powder and drying treatment proved effective in inhibiting the development of C. maculates and does not reduce germination of green beans. It showed very high effectiveness in the treatment of Java chili and pepper powder combined with drying for one week, which can inhibit up to more than 90%. Turmeric powder treatment also effectively inhibited the development of C. maculates up to 50%.
Now, you can try by yourself to use spices such as pepper as an organic insecticide to repel insects from food stock in the kitchen.

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Types of Aromatherapy

The types of aromatherapy using essential oil are categorized as internally and externally aromatherapy. However, the effectiveness of the active ingredient from any materials that will be used needs to be learned before. It aims to obtain an optimal effect and right-of-use.
Internal aromatherapy types
In the form of liquid, pure essential oil can be directly consumed orally (eat or drink by mouth) and through inhalation (inhaled through the nose). Examples of these are the oils of peppermint, clove, anise, basil, mint, rosemary, chamomile, bergamot, basil, betel, and others. Some products made from essential oils have also been produced, among others, in the form of lozenges, stick incense or cone, candles, and evaporation using burners.
Stick essence works as incense. How to use stick incense: burn the upper end of essence stick and place it in the stick holder. Then place them in a corner of the room that we want to be filled with fragrance. The length of stick essence burn approximately 20 minutes, but the fragrance can last up to approximately 1.5 hours. It is not recommended for people with asthma and cold caused by allergy in the morning.
Types of external aromatherapy
In general, the use of aromatherapy is mostly done outside the body externally than internally from within the body. As a material for medicines, essential oil easily absorbed when direct contact with the skin layer. However, this is more optimal if it is done by using the proper way. Some methods are often done in between a massage and water therapies.
The recommended ways for massage are: rub your body with essential oils just before bed. It feels a bit sticky and bitter (if licked); but then your body feel quite warm and, because of the aromatic fragrance, the feeling and the mind becomes more calm and relaxed. It is recommended to use oil with a fragrance intended for the afternoon / evening. After a few times, then the skin will feel supple, soft and not dry and cracked. Essential oils can also be used without the massage.
Bath salts are usually affixed to the water to soak. The content of salts and aromatic fragrance makes your body becomes fresh, smooth skin, and the mind calm. If you do not have a bath tub to soak, then soak the feet with water spiked with a tablespoon of bath salts is enough to make fatigue and aches in the legs disappeared, and the mind calm. Adjust the aromatic fragrance for morning or afternoon / evening. It can also be replaced by a few drops of essential oil.
If you do not have much time to soak; you can still feel the fragrance in the bath. Soap scented with a choice of various fragrances of aromatherapy can replace the that salts. Its use is very easy just like using regular soap. Besides the skin becomes smooth, feel fresh, and relaxing your thoughts with aromatic soap.
The proper use of the types of aromatherapy uses essential oils greatly assist the efficient and accurate work of active ingredients.

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Sunday, August 21, 2011

Essential oil recipe to heal diarrhea

Essential oil recipe traditionally had been found to generate the power to heal diarrhea. Research shows that the oxygen molecules in that essential oil react with water in human body to create heat that kills microbes or germs by dehydrating them. In 1992, Pakistan Pharmaceutical journal contains research results prove that certain essential oils killing more V. Cholera and E. coli bacteria strain (which causing that disease) compared with antibiotics such as Ampicillin and Tetracillin.
Partawa and Dewi research published in Jurnal Kimia/ Indonesia Journal of Chemistry (2008) 2 (2), showed that assay results of the essential oil of Alpinia galanga L. (galangal/ greater galangal/ Thai galangal/ blue ginger/ Thai ginger/ Langkwas/ Lengkuas/ galangal root) to the bacteria E. coli at a concentration of 100 ppm and 1000 ppm, indicating its good resistance to that bacteria.
This disease may occur for various reasons, partly because the food factor, nerve, and microbes. Of all these causes, the most important thing is to drink plenty of water, then rub a solution of the recipe (bellow) in vegetable oil on the entire surface of the abdomen.
a. Essential oil recipe to heal diarrhea caused by dietary factors
Use the ointment with the following solution:
Oil of chamomile (2 drops), peppermint (3), and eucalyptus (1)
Dissolve them in 1 teaspoon vegetable oil, then rub the whole surface of the stomach.
b. Neural factors
For curing diarrhea caused by nerves, use the ointment with the following solution:
Oil of chamomile (1 drop), eucalyptus (2), and lavender (3).
c. Microbial Factor
To cure diarrhea caused by microbial, use the ointment with the following solution:
Oil of thyme (3 drops), lavender (2), and tea tree (1)
Oral medications
In order to get rid of the diarrhea caused by neurological disorders and food, use 1 drop of peppermint oil, whereas in the case caused by microbes, use of eucalyptus oil. The oil is dissolved in 1 tablespoon of honey, then drink. Diarrhea treatment with aromatherapy is only as a complementary treatment, so the patients should see a doctor if the symptoms have not disappeared or diminished.
It appears that some of them it is still difficult to find at an affordable price. To overcome this, that products which are difficult to obtain should not be used or can be replaced with the others which are easily available and have the same efficacy. For example, chamomile oil can be replaced with fennel oil or ginger oil. Although it is less beneficial, but this is the best possible way for modify essential oil recipe to heal diarrhea.

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Saturday, August 20, 2011

What is aromatherapy

What is aromatherapy
Aromatherapy actually covers three inter-related factors. They are the body, mind and spirit. Because it is a form of treatment or on behalf of Aromatherapy products must be able to provide a real therapeutic effect which includes the above 3 things. Not just talking about factors of the body as long as this develops. And the bottom line again is that aromatherapy is not only about the 'beauty' or beauty alone. But more than that, Aromatherapy is a form of 'healing' or the healing process.
Aromatherapy is a form of therapy by using essential oils or 'aromatic' oils. Pharmacologically, essential oils have a real efficacy in the treatment and healing our bodies from various health problems. So with a foothold in the natural health, it was a natural beauty will shine. One example of the use of aromatherapy for body care is the use of eucalyptus oil to treat stomach aches. Who can deny the real efficacy of White Wood oil? As we all know primarily by the Indonesian community that this type of essential oil is always used as a reference if you have mild health problems in the abdominal area and our breathing. Only with smeared on the experience health problems, then the effect will be immediate and the pain was reduced even with the soon to be healed. Well, this is a real efficacious Aromatherapy for the body. Or another example is the use of oil in the oil Cironella wasps as a cure wounds. Look at how quickly the wound dry. That's because Citronella oil has the ability to freeze blood and regenerate skin cells rapidly. Even in an SPA product, Citronella oil mixed into the body scrubs. Given that the pharmacological Citronella is also antiseptic, so the cream is not just a function scrubs remove dead skin cells, but also kills the bacteria that exist in the skin.
In addition to real merit to the health and beauty of the body, essential oils also affect the mind (mind). When someone is having thoughts that cause tension headaches, essential oils such as Fennel (anise) is soothing, will be able to relax the nerves. A gentle warmth will help relax the muscles and blood circulation. The aroma was when inhaled by the nose and was captured by the receptors in the nostril, will be forwarded to the brain for later nerve-nerve response in accordance with the orders of the brain. And stretching the nerves will feel.
The stability of the soul (spirit) we are influenced by psychological factors. If the pressure of certain circumstances as a consequence of this life have brought someone on the unstable psychological condition, then it really needs to watch out and do treatment as early as possible. An example is the life of a career in the big cities. Accelerating the development of civilization has indirectly forced the professionals we are to exert all abilities both physically seemed to mind. That in turn will lead to fatigue, even to the extent of depression. And this is a real fact. As evidence is my experience over many years to pursue this Aromatherapy business. Most of our customers are in the productive age between ages 25 to 40 years. And most of them looking for Aromatherapy for the peace of the soul as a healer of their souls anxiety due to the demands of civilization ... And this is where the essential oil would be very instrumental. Certain oils such as Rose oil, Jasmine, greentea, Sandalwood, Ylang ylang Cempaka and will bring the feel of soul lovers Aromatherapy to calm the situation that alpha waves lull even
From the brief exposition above, then we can catch a picture of the function of essential oil therapy is called Aromatherapy. So a product can be regarded as aromatherapy if it contains essential oils as the active substance is real merit in providing therapeutic effects for the body (BODY), thought (MIND) and soul (Soul) as a whole. If just a scent that can affect mood alone (soul) but not efficacious person physically (body) and mind (mind), then it can not be regarded as Aromatherapy.

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Thursday, August 18, 2011

Essential oil recipe to make bath salt

Essential oil recipe combined with magnesium compound can be used to make bath salt. Magnesium (epsom salt) with chemical formula MgSO4.7H2O used to increase levels of minerals in the water. It is preferred than NaCl because it does not cause dryness of the skin.
Stress can remove magnesium from the body. The content of magnesium sulfate in epsom salt dissolved in warm water can be absorbed through the skin and replenishes the level of magnesium in the body. Magnesium helps us to produce serotonin, a chemical that enhances mood in the brain and creates a sense of calm and relaxation. Research shows that it also increases endurance and energy that triggers the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), an energy package in the cell. It can reduce irritation by reducing the effects of adrenaline, also reduce blood pressure, creating a sense of relaxation, improve sleep quality, concentration and helps muscles and nerves function properly. The epsom is easily obtained at any drugstore or supermarket. Cheap and versatile, it can be used for a number of different applications around the home. Many of the applications should be done with speed healing and improve skin quality and assist with basic care.
Its efficacy depends on the type of volatile substances used. Some of them is made with the different purpose or function, i.e. to provide a healing effect on the disease, to provide a relaxing effect, to provide refreshment and other effects. Each function is derived from its formula that differ in type, composition, and concentration of essential oil used.
Making bath salt using essential oil recipe can be carried out using: patchouli, ylang-ylang, nutmeg, cloves, turmeric, ginger, lemongrass, and peppermint oil. The formulas are made of four themes, it is sensual, relaxing, javaspicess, and peppermint.
1. Sensual
Epsom salt 97%
Oil of cananga (1.5%), and patchouli (1%)
2. Relaxing
Epsom 97%
Oil of cananga (1%), nutmeg (1%), and patchouli (1%)
3. Java spices
Epsom 97%
Oil of cloves (0.5%), turmeric (0.5%), ginger (0.5%), nutmeg (0.5%), lemongrass (0.5%), and patchouli (0.5%)
4. Peppermint
Epsom 97%
Oil of peppermint (1.5%), patchouli and (1.5%).
From the formula above, you can find and make bath salt from essential oil recipe according to your own taste and using materials that are easy to get.

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Tuesday, August 16, 2011

Essential oil use for transparent soap

The essential oil use for transparent soap is one of its utilization as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic ingredients for the skin, in addition of the creams form. This product was chosen since it is used in everyday activities for body, face, hands and other limbs. It gives a relaxing effect through the aroma, and also gives the effect of treatment for skin problems like acne, eczema due to fungi, and other skin diseases. For health skin, the use of this efficacious product is aim to maintain our healthy skin.
To make this nutritious product, the volatile substances used are generally derived from plants that include in the family of Asteraceae, Burseraceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, and Styraceae. The use of essential oil for transparent soap is aim to overcome the infection, inflammation, acne, relaxation, refreshment, and others.
It is produced by dissolving soap and alcohol by heating to form a clear solution, which is then added by perfumes and dyes. It is often referred as glycerine soap, because the making process need glycerine added about 10-15 percent. Raw materials used in the manufacture of transparent soap is a lauric acid, stearic acid, glycerin, surfactants, sodium hydroxide, sugar (sucrose), ethanol, EDTA, BHT, fragrance, and water. Usefulness effects are derived from the types of fragrance used, i.e. patchouli, vetiver, cinnamon, ylang, citrus, or tea trea oil, and others.
It has the power to effectively clean without leaving bubble. It will feel softer on your hands. It is widely used as a unique souvenir, birthday souvenirs, greeting souvenirs, as well as for a wedding gift. With its elegant and charming looks, it can be made into a variety of forms according to your design and a unique souvenir. Their appearance is so attractive, classy and luxurious so that it is sold at a price that is relatively more expensive and consumed by the middle to upper economic community.
How to make transparent soap from the essential oil
The tools needed, among others, are the heater tank, mixer machines, stoves, scales, container materials, additional container material, molds, cutting tools and packaging. As an initial step, the stock is made by mixing stearic acid with NaOH 20 ° Be as much as 98.3 g at the temperature of 90-100°Celsius for 30 minutes. Furthermore, other materials, such as glycerin, surfactants, DEA, EDTA, BHT, water, sugar, propylene glycol, foam boaster are mixed at the temperature of 90-95°Celsius for 30 minutes. After a homogeneous mixture, the temperature is lowered to 70°Celsius. The stock then is added by the essential oil, molded, and cooled to room temperature. The essential oil use for transparent soap is not restricted to one type of essential oil, but a combination of them could also be used to obtain various benefits.

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Essential oil raw material optimization

Optimization of raw material quality for essential oil extraction need to be done because it will affect the yield. Qualityof raw materials is influenced by the quality of cultivation which include the appropriate agro-climate requirement, varieties, cultivation technology applied and the proper harvest age. All of that must meet the Good Agriculture Practices (GAP). Harvest handling can affect the yield and completeness of its components.
Research Institute for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Balittro) of Indonesia has obtained four superior patchouli clones with patchouli alcohol levels above the required quality (more than 30%). They are Cisaroni, Lhoksumawe, Sidikalang, and Tapak Tuan. The clones can be used as reference in the selection of patchouli clones. In addition to forms or clones of plants, optimization of raw material quality for extraction of essential oil can be done by setting the age of harvest. Patchouli plants can be harvested after the age of 6-8 months and subsequent harvests can be done every 3-4 months. When the leaves are too young, the possibility of secondary metabolites which are formed is less than perfect so that it affect on final product quality.
At the vetiver, its essential oil distilled from the young rhizome has low specific gravity and optical rotation, is difficult to soluble in alcohol, mostly consists of terpenes and sesquiterpenes. The older rhizome produce vetiver oil which has higher specific gravity and optical rotation, is soluble in alcohol and more intensive smell. At the extraction of jasmine oil, the flowers are picked at the optimum level of aging. In the case of white jasmine oil (Jasminum sambac), the milky white flowers are chosen to be picked, while at the case of gambier jasmine (Jasminum officinale), the flowers are picked at the young age of purple flowers. Optimization of raw material quality for essential oil extraction can also be done by shortening the time gap between the harvest and the processing or distillation, so there will be less volatile substances lost during handling of raw material.

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Sunday, August 14, 2011

Essential oil uses to make bath salt

Today, essential oil uses to make bath salt is developed to meet the needs of the spa, beauty, and private with an aromatherapy system. This is because of the essential oil content. They can be considered as well as the most effective catalyst and as a medium of transport of nutrients to body cells. Thus, treatments with aromatherapy principles have been widely applied by using that volatile substances. In the bathing activity, the principles of aromatherapy have also been used by utilizing the bath salt.
It is defined as additives (additional substances) consisting of a mixture of salts and other inorganic chemicals which are easily dissolved, then given a fragrance materials, dyes, and may also the enzyme. Their main component is Epsom salt (MgSO4) which reaches 90-97%.
It is made with the aim to create a fragrance, coloring effects of water, fitness, and also to reduce water hardness. Its usefulness in general, very diverse, among which is to cleanse the body, fostering relaxed atmosphere and as a means of refreshing, lower sense of stress, exfoliate dead skin, eliminate body odor. It is capable of providing a relaxed atmosphere (relaxation). It is mainly due to the of essential oil uses for bath salt that can affect mood and emotions significantly. The special function in terms of health, especially because of it serves to flex the muscle tension, reduces pain in sore muscles, reduce symptoms of inflammation (inflammation), as well as cure the infection. For beauty, it can help smooth the skin (cleansing), stimulate cell growth as well as rejuvenate the skin (rejuvenating), and eliminate fatigue. Potassium and magnesium can stimulate energy regeneration. Types of fragrance that are widely used for this purpose are oil of patchouli, nutmeg, turmeric, ginger, sandalwood, jasmine, rose, ylang-ylang, and so forth.
Of course, the benefits of essential oil uses to make bath salt depending on its type which is used, such as patchouli oil play a role in the treatment of damaged skin, preventing wrinkled and cracked skin, depression and anxiety.

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Saturday, August 13, 2011

Rid of fruit flies using essential oil

Get rid of fruit flies using essential oil now can be done with citronella oil or lemongrass oil. The research performed at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease, Hasanuddin University of Makassar, Indonesia, showed that citronella oil is a fruit flies attractant of both males and females.
Fruit flies is one of the insect pests that attack crops in the field. The species of the family Tephritidae reach 4500 species, and there are 20 species of the Bactrocera genus is an important pest on crops and vegetables in Asia. Bactrocera spp. has a pretty much host like: orange, mango, papaya, avocados, bananas, tomatoes, apples, pineapples, pears, apricots, eggplant, guava and melon.
Yield loss due to their attack in Indonesia is quite large. This is because the stadia that causing damage on plant is their larvae which attack directly on the the crops. At the chili crop, the yield losses can reach 80%. Widespread attacks estimated 4700 ha with a loss of 21.99 billion rupiahs in 2002. In tackling these pests, farmers have been controlling in nature, such as by wrapping the fruit, containment plants with plastic nets, fogging around the tree and others. This effort allows for a relatively small land area, but it is inefficient to the land of many hectares. Another control that has been done is sterilization, chemical and wear traps using attractants.
Lemongrass essential oil
Get rid of fruit flies using essential oil is based on the ability of attractant substances such as methyl eugenol in the essential oil which is dripped on cotton inside the trap. Based on the testing, some essential oil give good results as an attractant for those insects. This method is effective in reducing the population as well as restrictions on entry and development of those insects in an area. However, synthetic attractants is only able to get the attention of the male, because it is parapheromone (sex pheromone) are compounds that smell similar to a pheromone produced by female insects to get the males to come. While the main suspect actually is the female which piercing or harming the surface in order to lay eggs inside.
One of the vegetable materials that are attractants of the insects is lemongrass oil. 20-50% concentration of lemongrass oil effectively attracts both kind of fruit flies in the laboratory and in the field. In field testing, lemongrass oil which is applied in liquid form, which is dripped on cotton that is attached to the trap is quite effective in get them. However, application of this fluid did not kill it so that the trap still needs to be added to a solution of detergent and the application is only effective up to day-to-4. Lemongrass essential oil has a distinctive aroma of lemon. The source of the scent is an aldehyde compound, namely sitral oil as the main compound.
Adding Materials Adhesives
To kill fruit flies which is going into lemongrass oil dripped on cotton, it is required other materials, such as detergent or adhesive. Addition of adhesive on lemongrass oil droplets on cotton was found to increase the effectiveness in controlling their population. Thus, get rid of fruit flies using essential oil is one of the natural and environmental friendly solution.

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Tuesday, August 9, 2011

Get rid of dandruff by essential oil

Get rid of dandruff by essential oil is one natural way that can be done at home. The material is promising is the kaffir lime oil. It is popular in culinary use to reduce the fishy smell and flavor. They have rough skin which in is used for seasoning “pecel” sauce in East Java and is used as a medicinal in the community of North Sumatra. Beyond that, it is also efficacious to remove dandruff.
Kaffir lime (Citrus Hystrix) or so-called sauce orange or “pecel” citrus is generally used for flavoring food and fragrances. It is included in subgenus Papeda and its appearance is easily recognizable. Compared with other citrus, it has round shape with the bulges, or the rough and thick surface of skin. Its plants originated from East Asia and Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. In Indonesia, they can be found in Java, Sulawesi (Makassar) and the Moluccas.
It is also be used for beauty and health. For health, it is used to prevent and cure influenza. As for beauty, it can brighten dull skin.
Meanwhile, they could serve as anti-dandruff, to overcome dull and stinky odor on the hair and scalp. It contains essential oil which can strengthen the follicles, so it is very useful for treating hair and its roots.
Its essential oil containing 2 to 2.5 percent of citrate. They also contain triperponoid steroids and tannins. No wonder, if many variety of skin and beauty products using ingredients from this as basic materials. Essential oil for fragrance can be obtained from its leaves or its peel.
Explained by Dr. Sri Murniati Moerdowo, LSKI chairman, its leaves have always been used to prevent hair problems. Currently, many hair care products use it as basic materials. Now, their processing is not mashed like in the earlier times, but it is taken to be extract which is used to make the hair look healthy and shiny.
From the results of research in the Journal of Kasetsart, it is found that essential oil of kaffir lime peel in the form of crude extract, could inhibit the growth of Candida alcicans which is a micro-organism associated with the dandruff of the scalp. So, if you want to get rid of dandruff by essential oil, you can take this optimum formula: kaffir lime juice, kaffir lime peel oil, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, coconut diethanolamide, 5-bromo-5-nitro-1, 3-dioxane (Bronidox) and water at 15.0, 1.0, 50.0, 30.0, 0.1 and 30.0 percent (w/w), respectively.
But if you want to use its fruit for hair care, you must clean the fruit first, then cut it into two parts for easy shredded. Grated result, applied to the scalp to stimulate the follicles. Then allow it to stand for one hour until the smear of the grated, really soak into the scalp. After that, you can cleanse it with clean water or with added shampoo. Although this treatment is safe, but you must keep in mind that it is sour substance, so that if irritated scalp is exposed to such material, it.can cause painful irritation. Therefore, you should not take this treatment.
However, get rid of dandruff by essential oil can be performed in natural way using the others, such as rosemary and ylang-ylang or cananga to help stimulate hair growth. Lavender also help us to fight dandruff.

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Monday, August 8, 2011

Essential oil business development in Indonesia

Essential oil business development in Indonesia needs to consider many complex factors, ranging from actors, technical and management of cultivation, processing technology, to the marketing. Intensification programs of essential oil plant need to consider absorption of markets, and prefer the commodity area grouping programs as well as intensification to improve its productivity and quality of raw materials, so it does not pose a risk of loss for farmers. Its plant farming is developed in the appropriate area, using top quality of plant material, and applying a good way of cultivation (good agricultural practices) to improve productivity and quality.
In the downstream, the essential oil industry should be developed that relies on the availability of raw materials and chemicals. Plant engineering and processing as well as R & D is undertaken by the Indonesian people themselves, so they do not only export raw materials but also high value processed commodities.
Volatile oil price fluctuations and levels, among others, are determined by supply and demand. So the government and exporters are expected to play an active role in providing guidance and counseling to farmers and distillers to anticipate market conditions and needs of the world. Attitude of openness of all businesses in terms of information components and cost structure of farming, refining, trading, and export and the level of prices in export markets can improve the harmonization of relationships between business actors.
Its value-added commodities can be improved because the technology to produce derivative commodities or conversion of its natural commodities into high value-added products has been available. The results of research and development need to be disseminated to the business. It required the support and joint efforts between government and business to the intensive dissemination of technology progresses, including the utilization of human resources at universities and research / development institutions.
Formulation and implementation of standardized processes (Good Agricultural Practices & Good Manufacturing Practices), standard equipment, quality standards applicable and needed in world trade, and prices associated with the quality standards should be promoted. It required the support of all stakeholders in order to realize and implement the various standards.
Increased profits can be pursued through the use of high quality raw materials, processing with appropriate technology, as well as increased efficiency of processing and marketing. The more intensive facilitation and coaching from the government / universities / research institutes and exporters needed to disseminate the appropriate technology to farmers and refiners.
Governments need to socialize the conditions and regulations on essential oil businesses development, both nationally and internationally. Improved access to capital for farmers and refiners, as well as institutional strengthening / farmers' associations and refiners in the region should continue to be pursued.
In every essential oil production centers, forum for communication of all relevant actors and agencies should be held periodically to seek solutions to problems faced and develop several action strategies for essential oil business development. The existence of “essential sites” to maintain the networking and communication among stakeholders at central and local governments can also support the efforts.
In order to integrate and harmonize the national essential oil community activities, all the stakeholders have agreed to form the Indonesia Council of Essential Oils. This council serves as a vehicle to: (1) to unite, protect and defend the interests of all stakeholders in the face of globalization, (2) improve the competitiveness and the "glory" of the commodities in the international world, and (3) enhance cooperation in the development of its value-added products.
Referring to the Estates Act No.18/2004 of Indonesia, the government is obliged to facilitate the establishment of commodity boards, so that the Council should be formed immediately. The establishment of the board of commodities is carried by the stakeholders. The small team which is a special task force representing various departments from government can be formed. This team can be a strategic partner in managing the Council and improve the performance and competitiveness of essential oil commodities, so that Indonesia become the world's major producer of volatile oil. Furthermore, the essential oil business development in Indonesia requires a strong commitment from the players to execute all the strategies and rules that have been agreed.

Reference: Molide Rizal and Muhamad Djazuli, 2006. Strategi Pengembangan Minyak Atsiri di Indonesia. Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Vol. 28, No. 5, 2006)

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Sunday, August 7, 2011

Essential oil extraction using microwave

Currently, the essential oil extraction using microwave is studied intensively to replace conventional technologies such as steam distillation (hydrodistillation), isolation with fat (enfleurage), etc. The primarily advantage of this method is the less time of volatile compounds extraction than previous methods.
Electromagnetic waves transmitted through radiation will penetrate the transparent substances like glass as a container of the raw material. It is able to achieve the gland and vascular system in the plant material. Moisture content and other components, including volatile compounds in plant parts absorb the radiation and it will turn it into heat energy. This leads to an increase in temperature in the raw material rapidly. Temperature increasing continues until the internal pressure exceeds the expansion capacity of cell wall. In this condition, the walls will rupture and the substances inside, including volatile substances will come out freely.
After the aromatic compounds went out of the wall, it will be mixed with moisture which is also contained in the raw material. These mechanisms facilitate the the evaporation of volatile compounds and water through a hydrodiffusion mechanism.
Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE)
MAE is a simple technique for the essential oil extraction using microwave. This technique can be applied both in the liquid phase (which liquid is used as a solvent) or gas phase (gas is used as a medium for extracting).
The first technique is based on the principle of differences in the ability to absorb microwave energy at each of the compounds contained in plant parts. Parameters commonly used to measure the physical properties are referred as the dielectric constant.
MAE technique also depends on the dielectric constant of the solvent used. Alfaro et al (2003) said that the ethanol produces the best yield of ginger oil than the other solvent such as hexane, petroleum ether, and dichloromethane. Further in his research said that the use of MAE can reduce the processing time to 60 seconds instead of using the soxhlet extraction.
Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation (MAH)
This method is basically a combination between the essential oil extraction using microwave radiation with dry distillation system. Therefore, the MAH are not required additional solvents such as MAE. To ensure ongoing process of diffusion of volatile compounds and water, so the raw material must be fresh (containing moisture).
In general, the method is as follows: plant parts put in the distillation flask made of glass that can be penetrated by radiation so that those materials will absorb it then it reach the gland and vascular systems in the cell wall. These mechanisms generate heat so that the walls will rupture and the aromatic substances inside can freely come out. Water in the raw substance will also become hot due to the absorption of electromagnetic energy and diffuse into the volatile oil causing hydrodiffusion. Aromatic substances and moisture evaporate together based on the principles of distillation and then condensed.
Finally, essential oil extraction using microwave needs to be further studied, especially its composition or its contents, whether there is a change of natural substances in the essential oils or not.

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Saturday, August 6, 2011

Essential oil uses as feed additives

Essential oil uses as a feed additive in any type of livestock ransoms can be done without changing the Ingestion system used on a farm, both traditional farming and large livestock industry. The combination of several types of essential oils increase the effectiveness of these oils work (synergist work ). Although administered in low doses (g / ton of feed basalt), they generate more profit, both in terms of social economic and animal physiology.
Something good for mankind will not be bad when it is given to livestock. Therefore, there is no reason not to use them in cattle farm. In cattle, the importance of uses of essential oils active components have just been understood and researched in recent years.
Now, it is more than just an alternative to antibiotics. They not only affect the microbial population, but at the same, showed positive effect on the activity of digestive enzymes and intermediate metabolism. Livestock production is not only intended to enhance the appearance of cattle, but also the nutrition and health of livestock and humans. Currently, the essential oil uses as a feed additive became popular in the world of agriculture and livestock to boost metabolism and digestion (digestion and metabolism promoters).
Because its smell and taste, so its oral consumption which is mixed into livestock basal feed to stimulate central nervous system, that ultimately results in increased appetite and consumption of food substances. They stimulate the production of digestive fluids that produce an appropriate pH for digestive enzymes, such as peptinase. At the same time, it increase the activity of digestive enzymes and regulation of microbial activity. The stability of the microflora in the digestive tract decreases the incidence of diarrhea and other digestive diseases. The real effect of this mechanism is the improvement of energy conversion and digestion of nutrients and positive impact on the metabolism of nitrogen, amino acids, and glucose.
Applications of essential oils blend from Oregano (Oreganum vulgare), Cinnanom (Cinnamon annum), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and Eucalyptus on the broiler in the area of East Java – Indonesia, showed improvement of feed conversion, increased weight gain, reducing mortality and improvement of farm business profit.
Its ability to stimulate the central nervous system change the cattle characteristic which is more tolerant to stress (increase immunity), both the stress caused by the separation from its parent (especially in pigs) and the stress caused by environmental conditions.
Positively influence of the of essential oil uses as a feed additive was also seen in European countries, the United States, and some Asian countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and India both on the broiler, laying hens, and ruminants.

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Thursday, August 4, 2011

Choosing essential oil bottle

During storage, degradation can occur in essential oils. The deterioration is usually caused by oxidation, resinification (condensed form compounds such as resin), polymerization (forming a viscous compound), and hydrolysis. Because of changes in these compounds, so the its color will change and become more viscous. The changes are activated by heat, oxygen from air, moisture, sunlight, and heavy metal molecules. They should be stored properly so that the deterioration will not happen or at least be slowed.
Here are the best tips on how to store essential oil properly:
Tips # 1: Choose a dark bottle
They should be stored in containers made from glass, dark (eg, brown or dark blue) to reduce the incoming rays.
Tips # 2: Consider the headspace
It is an empty space between the products with a lid. Generally, its function was to provide room for expansion of its content/volume when it was get sterilized. However, if it is too large then the contained material is very likely to get oxidized and discoloration of the packaged material will happen, whereas if it is too small then the packing tip could be broken during sterilization. Typically, its volume is approximately 10% of container capacity.
Therefore, it should be fully loaded so that oxygen from the air in the headspace is small. If the content in the bottle is very low then it needs to be poured into another one of smaller size to avoid too large air volume in the previous bottle.
Before closing, preferably CO2 or Nitrogen gas sprayed into the headspace. CO2 and Nitrogen is an inert gas (not easily react with the material). Thus, it can be relatively free of oxygen and was replaced by carbon dioxide or nitrogen.
Tips # 3: Choose the right material for packaging
They should be stored in the place that are completely dry and must be free of heavy metals. Therefore, the essential oil bottle should be made of glass or coated with an inert material.

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Wednesday, August 3, 2011

Essential oils properties

Although their composition differ one from another, they have some similar physical essential oil properties. They are composed not only of one compound, but a mixture with different composition for each type of plant. They have a distinctive odor, a high refractive index, and most have optical activity and a specific rotation. Therefore, these parameters are used as the qualification of those products.
They are soluble in ether, alcohol, and several other organic solvents. Its solubility in water is very small, but large enough to provide the smell to the water. Water that contains very little of them also has a fragrance, usually called aromatic water.
The other essential oil properties as follows:
-It has a distinctive odor, the smell is generally represented his native plant odor
-Having a sense of bitter, sharp taste, bite, giving a sense of hot or even warm to cold when the skin, depending on the type of its components. For example: the volatile compounds from clove bud give us extra hot, even irritating sensation to our skin, so you should be careful when use it.
How to distinguish between them with the fat or oil?
Plant substances that have a solubility and physical appearance similar to the volatile oil is "oil or fat". They were both somewhat viscous liquid form and can not dissolved in water. To distinguish them, you may notice the following essential oil properties:
Tips #1
They can be distilled from the source of natural materials, while fat or oil can not.
Tips #2
When both substances are hatched on a piece of paper it will leave a transparent stain. After a while, volatile oil stains will disappear, while the oil or fat stains still there.
Tips #3
On the addition of alkali, they do not produce soap, while the fat or oil produce soap.
Tips #4
Fat or oil when stored longer would be rancid (rancid), but volatile oils are not. However, when volatile compounds exposed to sunlight or moisture, air or oxygen will cause resinification, thus becoming similar viscous resin.
Understanding essential oil properties can help us to design each application and to formulate the right recipe of the various kinds.

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Tuesday, August 2, 2011

Finding essential oil from plant part

Essential oil is produced from various part of plant and then stored in various organs. Research shows that they are made in the certain organs. They are present inside the plant (called "internal glands") and outside it (called "external ones").
Internal gland
It is produced by the entry of essential oils that originally exist outside the cells, which then destroy them around it, create a kind of channel organs with essential oils inside. There are possibilities that the surrounding ones to dissolved and create a group of cells called "glands" thus produce a channel that contains it.
Its mechanism such as formation schizolysigen. Some of them may exist in all parts of the certain trees. There are herbs that contained it only in the leaves, flowers, or in the trunk. There are also trees that contain it in some location of the plant, for example in the leaves and the bark as in Cinnamoni (cinnamon). Under microscope, it appears that they exist in the form of fraction with slightly yellowish-colored cells. Sometimes their wall dissolved to build a line of volatile oil in cinnamon bark (created by schizolysigen).
External gland
Glands of the external surface, commonly referred to as "epidermal cells" or its modification, such as hairs. The volatile products are usually buried in between the cuticle (outer layer) and the wall between a cell with others. Cuticle in the form of a thin layer will rupture when exposed to friction, eg friction hands. When the cuticle breaks, they would come out so its smell will spread.
Under microscope, it appears that hairs found on the entire surface of the leaves and bark. They shaped like hair and a sphere-shaped organ that contain the volatile compounds. Important things to note:
1. In the Cinnamomun zeylanicum BREYN, it is found in the bark as opposed to that contained in the leaves.
2. In Coniferae, it is found in all plant parts.
3. In rose, it is found only in the petals of flowers.
4. In Umbelliferae, it is in pericarp of fruit.
5. On citrus (orange), it is in the petals and its composition is very different with the volatile compounds which come from the peel of the fruit.

If you want to produce essential oils, you need to know the parts of plants which can produce it. So it should be studied first.

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Monday, August 1, 2011

Essential oil business opportunities in Indonesia

As one of the biodiversity central, Indonesia has the opportunities to produces 40 kinds of essential oils from 80 species that are traded in world business. Of these, 13 species have entered the world markets that is patchouli, lemongrass, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, pepper, cinnamon, sandalwood, jasmine, vetiver, ylang, eucalyptus, and cubeb.
Most of the them produced by the farmers is exported to the market share of 64% patchouli, 67% ylang, 26% vetiver, 12% lemongrass, 72% nutmeg, 63% cloves. 0.4% ginger, and 0.9% pepper oil of world exports. Essential oils export destination for Indonesia, among others, the United States (23%), Britain (19%), Singapore (18%), India (8%), Spain (8%), France (6%), China (3% ), Switzerland (3%), Japan (2%), and other countries (8%). Although the market share of some of these commodities are individually relatively high, the total share of Indonesia in the essential oils international market is only about 2.6%. In any national economy, these products at 2001-2003 period has only a small portion, classified into commodities "plantation", the role of an average 0.01% of total export value of commodities. In 2004, essential oils export value reached U.S. $ 47.2 million, but this country also imported this commodity worth U.S. $ 12.26 million and their processed products (derivatives, isolates, and formulas) U.S. $ 117.20 million. If the value of imports is taken into account, so the Indonesia's trade balance for these commodities became negative. Actually, some of them can be produced domestically, such as peppermint oil (Mentha arvensis) and anise oil (Clausena anisata).
On 18-20 September 2006, in Solo has held the National Conference with the theme Towards SMEs of Essential Oils with Highly Competitive. The conference has identified 32 types that have the potential to be developed, among which there are seven new types which can be exploited commercially, ie anise oil, peppermint oil (cornmint oil), basil (Reunion type basil oil), fragrant lemongrass (East Indian Type), kitchen lemongrass (West Indian Type), jerangau (Calamus oil), and bangle. Various agreements have also been reached to develop these products in this country in order to provide optimum benefit and proportionate for all national stakeholders of this commodity.

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