Saturday, July 9, 2011

Kenanga Oils / Cananga Oils

Cananga oil obtained by distillation cananga flowers. In the local areas of Indonesia, small and medium scale processors usually distill that oil by boiling method. The distillates (kenanga oil) consist of several factions that have different composition and quality. Faction of this essential oil with the best quality is that contains high levels of ester and ether, low sesquiterpenes. It is still exported in a crude form. By American and European importers, it is usually precessed through rectification to produce clearer and more easily soluble oil. The final oil will shrink as much as 25%.
The plants (Cananga odorata) were spreaded from the Philippines. In Java, the plants grow wild. The plants thrive in the lowlands with high humidity, tropical climate and close to the beach. In Java, the plants is usually planted in the yard, but not cultivated. Producing areas of its flower in Java Island is (one of Indonesia big Island) is Banten.
The young flower is green, while the old yellow. The highest yield and quality of cananga oil have been found in the perfectly mature one(amber colored).
It is only produced in Indonesia with an output of 20 tons / year. Specialized in Java, cananga oil producing region is Boyolali and Blitar. In the world, cananga oil consumption is still limited compared ylang-ylang oil, but it is still important because of the smell of this oil is more durable and less expensive than ylang-ylang oil. In industry, it is used as a fragrance ingredient of soap.
The flowers are traded since ancient times in Java, especially to make a hair oil that is often used by Javanese women. In addition to nourish and improve the black color of the human hair., cananga oil aroma is also appealing. That's why it is known as a perfume tree. Parts of plants that can be used in cosmetics and herbal therapy are the flowers. Chemical content in the essential oil are benzoic, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, benzyl acetate, eugenol, safrol, cadinene and pinene. Its chemical compounds are volatile and are excellent for aromatherapy. It is also used to blend masks and scrubs.
Linalool as the cananga oil major component, can be converted into a compound that is linalil acetate esters. Linalil acetate useful as a perfume, cosmetics, and as an antibacterial. Changes in components of the oil as the esterification results will affect the antibacterial activity. Esterification reaction of linalool with acetic acid and catalyst ZnCl2 anhidrid use heating in refluxing resulting acetic linalil ester with yield of 13.25% while the esterification of linalool with no heating doesn’t produce acetic linalil ester. Heating affects the esterification reaction by increasing the acetic linalil ester resulted. The oil produced from that esterification has lower activity as an antibacterial for S. aureus.
According to Danna Amelia research , the cananga oil yield from steam distillation of its fresh flowers sample was 0.325% (w / w) while for the wilted flowers is 0.276% (w / w). Components of the oil from the fresh one are 1-methoxy-4-methyl benzene (3.05%), linalool (22.06%), geranyl acetate (7.54%), trans-caryophilene (28.06%), α -humulene (8.65%) and D-germacrene (21.91%), while the wilted one is, 1-methoxy-4-methyl benzene (2.79%), linalool (21.76%), trans -caryophilene (31.87%), α-humulen (9.25%) and D-germacrene (21.62%). The results of physico-chemical properties of cananga oil is yellow translucent in color, fragrant smell of kenanga, 0.9157 specific gravity and refractive index of 1.5039, while for oil of the wilted one is clear translucent in color, fragrant smell with a little burnt nuance, specific gravity 0.9138 and refractive index 1.5040 (Danna Amelia, 2011)

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Indonesia vetiver oils
Indonesia lemongrass oils
Indonesia clove oils
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Indonesia ginger oils

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