Sunday, July 10, 2011

Fennel Oil

Fennel oil, also called minyak adas in Indonesia, produced from the fennel plant. Varieties that produce this oil consists of two sub-species, namely Var. Vulgare (Miller) Thelling (wild and bitter) and Var. Dulce (Miller) Thelling (intensive cultivation and sweet). It is commercially produced by distillation of its fruit (seeds) using steam distillation system. Its yield is approximately 1-6%. Distillation to make this essential oil should be done immediately after grain harvest. During the process of distillation of fennel oil, the condenser temperature should be kept rather high, to prevent freezing of the oil in the condenser tubes.
The main components found in fennel oil such as anthole, fenchone, and estragole. The presence of these components in that essential oil depending on the varieties. It is known as one component of Telon oil. Telon oil is a famous oils in Indonesia used to warm baby’s body (but not too hot).
Fennel essential oils are the most important of the Dulce variety contain anethol (50-80%), limonene (5%), fenchone (5%), estragole (methyl-chavicol), safrol, alpha-pinene (0.5%), camphene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene and p-cymen. Vulgare varieties are not used to be cultivated, because although it sometimes contain more oil, but this kind of fennel oil is characterized by a bitter fenchone (12-22%) so that it is cheaper than the other one from varieties of Dulce.
The content of fennel oil issued anethol causing a distinctive aroma and nutritious carminative. The roots contain bergaptene. Roots and seeds contain stigmasterine (serposterine). Pharmacological Effects and Outcomes Research: 1. Active components, anisaldehide, improving efficacy streptomycin for the treatment of tuberculosis in mice. 2. Improve the digestive tract and stimulate peristalsis expenditure fart (flatus). 3. Eliminate cold and phlegm. 4. It containing anethol, fenchone, chavicol, and efficacious anisaldehide soothing the digestive tract and works like a stimulant appetite. 5. From one study in adult humans, it is found that this oil has devastating effects of kidney stones. 6. In animal experiments, extracts of its leaf decoction can lower blood pressure. However, other ways of fennel oil processing do not show these properties.
Local Name
Hades (Sunda), adas, adas londa, adas landi (Jawa),; Adhas (Madura), adas (Bali), wala wunga (Sumba).; Das pedas (Aceh), adas, adas pedas (melayu).; Adeh, manih (Minangkabau). paapang, paampas (Menado).; Popoas (Alfuru), denggu-denggu (Gorontalo), ; Papaato (Buol), porotomo (Baree). kumpasi (Sangir Talaud).; Adasa, rempasu (Makasar), adase (Bugis).; Hsiao hui (China), phong karee, mellet karee (Thailand),; Jintan Manis (Malaysia). barisaunf, madhurika (Ind./Pak.).; fenkel, spigel.

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