Saturday, December 10, 2011

Cardamom oil

Cardamom oil has a promising market in Europe with a price in excess of U.S. $ 230.0 per kg. The yield depends on the type of raw materials. This is generally used as a flavor agent as well as having benefits for human health and treatment. Its components consist mainly of cineol and alpha terpenil acetate. The rest is oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and a sesquiterpene.
Its raw material (kapolaga herb or kapulaga in Indonesia); is known to have two types, namely Sabrang (Elettaria cardamomum) and local (Amomum cardamomum). Sabrang is the kind which is most cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Laos, Guatemala, and El Salvador. This species is regarded as the true one, while the type which is widely planted in Indonesia is local type and called as well as the false. The main compounds of True Cardamom Oil are terpenes, terpineol and cineol, while False Cardamom Oil also contain borneol and camphor (kamfer).
Cardamom oil sold in the international market is produced through the distillation of the seeds (Sabrang types), while the products of local species is not yet known. The processing technology used is generally steam distillation. The color is clear to pale yellow. Types are planted in Indonesia is widely used for a mixture of herbs, while its essential oil is not much produced. The results showed that the characteristics of Sabrang cardamom oil, locally grown at Sukabumi West Java - Indonesia, can meet the requirements of International Standards, while the characteristics of the essential oil from local species are very different. The main difference of these two kinds of products is their main components, which Sabrang contains terpinil acetate, while the main content of local species is cineol. Other components include limonene, sabinen, linalool, linalyl acetate, pinene, and zingiberen.
The yield of Sabrang cardamom oil and the local one is 3.5 and 2.5%. The essential oil of true species is widely used as a fragrance component in soaps, detergents, lotions, creams, and perfumes, especially the oriental and is an important flavor in food processing. The maximum usage rate in the perfume was 0.4 and 0.01% in alcoholic beverages. High price in foreign markets provide hope for the development of Sabrang species as a new source of essential oils. Utilization of local species is for the pharmaceutical industry and partly as a culinary ingredient. It is also used as raw material for its oleoresin.
Usefulness of essential oil for their plants itself is that C4 photosynthesis minimizes photorespiration and increases sugar production. This adaptation is very useful in hot regions with a lot of sunlight and in environments like these C4 plants emerge and flourish. In addition, it is also useful in the process of pollination by attracting several kinds of insects using its unique smell. Preventing damage to crops by animals and as a reserve food for plants is another function of volatile oils for their plants. While the cardamom oil benefits are as a fragrance enhancer, an ingredient for mixture of herbs or medications to reduce stomach bloating pain, sore throat, hoarseness, reducing excessive fart, anti-cough, preventing bone loss, rheumatism, whooping cough, stomach cramps, vomiting, stomach inflammation (gastritis), fever, gout, muscle pains and hernias.
In general, cardamom oil has chemical compunds as follows: terpineol, borneol, sebinena, cineol, β-camphor, limonene, α-terpinene, proteins, sugars, fats, acetate, mirkena, mirtenal, karvona, and silicates.

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